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Quantitative and qualitative analysis of antimicrobial usage patterns in 180 selected farrow-to-finish pig farms from nine European countries based on single batch and purchase data

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Abstract
Objectives Farm-level quantification of antimicrobial usage (AMU) in pig farms. Methods In a cross-sectional study, AMU data on group treatments administered to a single batch of fattening pigs from birth to slaughter (group treatment data) and antimicrobials purchased during 1year (purchase data) were collected at 180 pig farms in nine European countries. AMU was quantified using treatment incidence (TI) based on defined (DDDvet) and used (UDDvet) daily doses and defined (DCDvet) and used (UCDvet) course doses. Results The majority of antimicrobial group treatments were administered to weaners (69.5% of total TIDDDvet) followed by sucklers (22.5% of total TIDDDvet). AMU varied considerably between farms with a median TIDDDvet of 9.2 and 7.1 for a standardized rearing period of 200days based on group treatment and purchase data, respectively. In general, UDDvet and UCDvet were higher than DDDvet and DCDvet, respectively, suggesting that either the defined doses were set too low or that group treatments were often dosed too high and/or administered for too long. Extended-spectrum penicillins (31.2%) and polymyxins (24.7%) were the active substances most often used in group treatments, with the majority administered through feed or water (82%). Higher AMU at a young age was associated with higher use in older pigs. Conclusions Collecting farm-level AMU data of good quality is challenging and results differ based on how data are collected (group treatment data versus purchase data) and reported (defined versus used daily and course doses).
Keywords
RESISTANCE, ENROFLOXACIN, ANIMALS, COLI

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MLA
Sarrazin, Steven et al. “Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Antimicrobial Usage Patterns in 180 Selected Farrow-to-finish Pig Farms from Nine European Countries Based on Single Batch and Purchase Data.” JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY 74.3 (2019): 807–816. Print.
APA
Sarrazin, S., Joosten, P., Van Gompel, L., Luiken, R. E. C., Mevius, D. J., Wagenaar, J. A., Heederik, D. J. J., et al. (2019). Quantitative and qualitative analysis of antimicrobial usage patterns in 180 selected farrow-to-finish pig farms from nine European countries based on single batch and purchase data. JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY, 74(3), 807–816.
Chicago author-date
Sarrazin, Steven, Philip Joosten, Liese Van Gompel, Roosmarijn E C Luiken, Dik J Mevius, Jaap A Wagenaar, Dick J J Heederik, et al. 2019. “Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Antimicrobial Usage Patterns in 180 Selected Farrow-to-finish Pig Farms from Nine European Countries Based on Single Batch and Purchase Data.” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 74 (3): 807–816.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Sarrazin, Steven, Philip Joosten, Liese Van Gompel, Roosmarijn E C Luiken, Dik J Mevius, Jaap A Wagenaar, Dick J J Heederik, Jeroen Dewulf, J Wagenaar, H Graveland, D Heederik, H Schmitt, R Luiken, L Van Gompel, D Mevius, A van Essen, B Gonzalez-Zorn, G Moyano, P Sanders, C Chauvin, J David, A Battisti, A Caprioli, J Dewulf, T Blaha, K Wadepohl, M Brandt, F Aarestrup, T Hald, S Duarte, D Wasyl, D Krasucka, B Biernacki, J Szumiło, H Daskalov, H Saatkamp, and K Stärk. 2019. “Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Antimicrobial Usage Patterns in 180 Selected Farrow-to-finish Pig Farms from Nine European Countries Based on Single Batch and Purchase Data.” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 74 (3): 807–816.
Vancouver
1.
Sarrazin S, Joosten P, Van Gompel L, Luiken REC, Mevius DJ, Wagenaar JA, et al. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of antimicrobial usage patterns in 180 selected farrow-to-finish pig farms from nine European countries based on single batch and purchase data. JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY. 2019;74(3):807–16.
IEEE
[1]
S. Sarrazin et al., “Quantitative and qualitative analysis of antimicrobial usage patterns in 180 selected farrow-to-finish pig farms from nine European countries based on single batch and purchase data,” JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 807–816, 2019.
@article{8617315,
  abstract     = {Objectives Farm-level quantification of antimicrobial usage (AMU) in pig farms.
Methods In a cross-sectional study, AMU data on group treatments administered to a single batch of fattening pigs from birth to slaughter (group treatment data) and antimicrobials purchased during 1year (purchase data) were collected at 180 pig farms in nine European countries. AMU was quantified using treatment incidence (TI) based on defined (DDDvet) and used (UDDvet) daily doses and defined (DCDvet) and used (UCDvet) course doses.
Results The majority of antimicrobial group treatments were administered to weaners (69.5% of total TIDDDvet) followed by sucklers (22.5% of total TIDDDvet). AMU varied considerably between farms with a median TIDDDvet of 9.2 and 7.1 for a standardized rearing period of 200days based on group treatment and purchase data, respectively. In general, UDDvet and UCDvet were higher than DDDvet and DCDvet, respectively, suggesting that either the defined doses were set too low or that group treatments were often dosed too high and/or administered for too long. Extended-spectrum penicillins (31.2%) and polymyxins (24.7%) were the active substances most often used in group treatments, with the majority administered through feed or water (82%). Higher AMU at a young age was associated with higher use in older pigs.
Conclusions Collecting farm-level AMU data of good quality is challenging and results differ based on how data are collected (group treatment data versus purchase data) and reported (defined versus used daily and course doses).},
  author       = {Sarrazin, Steven and Joosten, Philip and Van Gompel, Liese and Luiken, Roosmarijn E C and Mevius, Dik J and Wagenaar, Jaap A and Heederik, Dick J J and Dewulf, Jeroen and Wagenaar, J and Graveland, H and Heederik, D and Schmitt, H and Luiken, R and Gompel, L Van and Mevius, D and van Essen, A and Gonzalez-Zorn, B and Moyano, G and Sanders, P and Chauvin, C and David, J and Battisti, A and Caprioli, A and Dewulf, J and Blaha, T and Wadepohl, K and Brandt, M and Aarestrup, F and Hald, T and Duarte, S and Wasyl, D and Krasucka, D and Biernacki, B and Szumiło, J and Daskalov, H and Saatkamp, H and Stärk, K},
  issn         = {0305-7453},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY},
  keywords     = {RESISTANCE,ENROFLOXACIN,ANIMALS,COLI},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {807--816},
  title        = {Quantitative and qualitative analysis of antimicrobial usage patterns in 180 selected farrow-to-finish pig farms from nine European countries based on single batch and purchase data},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dky503},
  volume       = {74},
  year         = {2019},
}

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