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CO2 leakage can cause loss of benthic biodiversity in submarine sands

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Abstract
One of the options to mitigate atmospheric CO2 increase is CO2 Capture and Storage in sub-seabed geological formations. Since predicting long-term storage security is difficult, different CO2 leakage scenarios and impacts on marine ecosystems require evaluation. Submarine CO2 vents may serve as natural analogues and allow studying the effects of CO2 leakage in a holistic approach. At the study site east of Basiluzzo Islet off Panarea Island (Italy), gas emissions (90-99% CO2) occur at moderate flows (80-120 Lm(-2) h(-1)). We investigated the effects of acidified porewater conditions (pH(T) range: 5.5-7.7) on the diversity of benthic bacteria and invertebrates by sampling natural sediments in three subsequent years and by performing a transplantation experiment with a duration of one year, respectively. Both multiple years and one year of exposure to acidified porewater conditions reduced the number of benthic bacterial operational taxonomic units and invertebrate species diversity by 30-80%. Reduced biodiversity at the vent sites increased the temporal variability in bacterial and nematode community biomass, abundance and composition. While the release from CO2 exposure resulted in a full recovery of nematode species diversity within one year, bacterial diversity remained affected. Overall our findings showed that seawater acidification, induced by seafloor CO2 emissions, was responsible for loss of diversity across different size-classes of benthic organisms, which reduced community stability with potential relapses on ecosystem resilience.
Keywords
Benthos, Bacteria, Invertebrates, Biodiversity, CO2 vents, Carbon capture and storage (CCS), Panarea island, Mediterranean sea, DEEP-SEA, OCEAN ACIDIFICATION, CARBON-DIOXIDE, CLIMATE-CHANGE, SEAWATER ACIDIFICATION, COMMUNITY STRUCTURE, MARINE ORGANISMS, CYTOPLASMIC PH, IN-SITU, DIVERSITY

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Citation

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MLA
Molari, Massimiliano et al. “CO2 Leakage Can Cause Loss of Benthic Biodiversity in Submarine Sands.” MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 144 (2019): 213–229. Print.
APA
Molari, M., Guilini, K., Lins Pereira, L., Ramette, A., & Vanreusel, A. (2019). CO2 leakage can cause loss of benthic biodiversity in submarine sands. MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, 144, 213–229.
Chicago author-date
Molari, Massimiliano, Katja Guilini, Lidia Lins Pereira, Alban Ramette, and Ann Vanreusel. 2019. “CO2 Leakage Can Cause Loss of Benthic Biodiversity in Submarine Sands.” Marine Environmental Research 144: 213–229.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Molari, Massimiliano, Katja Guilini, Lidia Lins Pereira, Alban Ramette, and Ann Vanreusel. 2019. “CO2 Leakage Can Cause Loss of Benthic Biodiversity in Submarine Sands.” Marine Environmental Research 144: 213–229.
Vancouver
1.
Molari M, Guilini K, Lins Pereira L, Ramette A, Vanreusel A. CO2 leakage can cause loss of benthic biodiversity in submarine sands. MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH. 2019;144:213–29.
IEEE
[1]
M. Molari, K. Guilini, L. Lins Pereira, A. Ramette, and A. Vanreusel, “CO2 leakage can cause loss of benthic biodiversity in submarine sands,” MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, vol. 144, pp. 213–229, 2019.
@article{8617022,
  abstract     = {One of the options to mitigate atmospheric CO2 increase is CO2 Capture and Storage in sub-seabed geological formations. Since predicting long-term storage security is difficult, different CO2 leakage scenarios and impacts on marine ecosystems require evaluation. Submarine CO2 vents may serve as natural analogues and allow studying the effects of CO2 leakage in a holistic approach. At the study site east of Basiluzzo Islet off Panarea Island (Italy), gas emissions (90-99% CO2) occur at moderate flows (80-120 Lm(-2) h(-1)). We investigated the effects of acidified porewater conditions (pH(T) range: 5.5-7.7) on the diversity of benthic bacteria and invertebrates by sampling natural sediments in three subsequent years and by performing a transplantation experiment with a duration of one year, respectively. Both multiple years and one year of exposure to acidified porewater conditions reduced the number of benthic bacterial operational taxonomic units and invertebrate species diversity by 30-80%. Reduced biodiversity at the vent sites increased the temporal variability in bacterial and nematode community biomass, abundance and composition. While the release from CO2 exposure resulted in a full recovery of nematode species diversity within one year, bacterial diversity remained affected. Overall our findings showed that seawater acidification, induced by seafloor CO2 emissions, was responsible for loss of diversity across different size-classes of benthic organisms, which reduced community stability with potential relapses on ecosystem resilience.},
  author       = {Molari, Massimiliano and Guilini, Katja and Lins Pereira, Lidia and Ramette, Alban and Vanreusel, Ann},
  issn         = {0141-1136},
  journal      = {MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH},
  keywords     = {Benthos,Bacteria,Invertebrates,Biodiversity,CO2 vents,Carbon capture and storage (CCS),Panarea island,Mediterranean sea,DEEP-SEA,OCEAN ACIDIFICATION,CARBON-DIOXIDE,CLIMATE-CHANGE,SEAWATER ACIDIFICATION,COMMUNITY STRUCTURE,MARINE ORGANISMS,CYTOPLASMIC PH,IN-SITU,DIVERSITY},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {213--229},
  title        = {CO2 leakage can cause loss of benthic biodiversity in submarine sands},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2019.01.006},
  volume       = {144},
  year         = {2019},
}

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