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Abstract
We present a large-scale study of a series of seven lessons designed to help young children learn English vocabulary as a foreign language using a social robot. The experiment was designed to investigate 1) the effectiveness of a social robot teaching children new words over the course of multiple interactions (supported by a tablet), 2) the added benefit of a robot's iconic gestures on word learning and retention, and 3) the effect of learning from a robot tutor accompanied by a tablet versus learning from a tablet application alone. For reasons of transparency, the research questions, hypotheses and methods were preregistered. With a sample size of 194 children, our study was statistically well-powered. Our findings demonstrate that children are able to acquire and retain English vocabulary words taught by a robot tutor to a similar extent as when they are taught by a tablet application. In addition, we found no beneficial effect of a robot's iconic gestures on learning gains.
Keywords
CHILDREN, PEER, Robots for learning, Second language tutoring, Child-Robot Interaction, Long-term interaction, Gesture

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Citation

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MLA
Vogt, Paul et al. “Second Language Tutoring Using Social Robots : a Large-scale Study.” HRI  ’19: 2019 14TH ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-ROBOT INTERACTION. New York: IEEE, 2019. 497–505. Print.
APA
Vogt, P., van den Berghe, R., de Haas, M., Hoffman, L., Kanero, J., Mamus, E., Montanier, J.-M., et al. (2019). Second language tutoring using social robots : a large-scale study. HRI  ’19: 2019 14TH ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-ROBOT INTERACTION (pp. 497–505). Presented at the 14th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), New York: IEEE.
Chicago author-date
Vogt, Paul, Rianne van den Berghe, Mirjam de Haas, Laura Hoffman, Junko Kanero, Ezgi Mamus, Jean-Marc Montanier, et al. 2019. “Second Language Tutoring Using Social Robots : a Large-scale Study.” In HRI  ’19: 2019 14TH ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-ROBOT INTERACTION, 497–505. New York: IEEE.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Vogt, Paul, Rianne van den Berghe, Mirjam de Haas, Laura Hoffman, Junko Kanero, Ezgi Mamus, Jean-Marc Montanier, Cansu Oranc, Ora Oudgenoeg-Paz, Daniel Hernandez Garcia, Fotios Papadopoulos, Thorsten Schodde, Josje Verhagen, Christopher D. Wallbridge, Bram Willemsen, Jan de Wit, Tony Belpaeme, Tilbe Goksun, Stefan Kopp, Emiel Krahmer, Aylin C. Kuntay, Paul Leseman, and Amit Kumar Pandey. 2019. “Second Language Tutoring Using Social Robots : a Large-scale Study.” In HRI  ’19: 2019 14TH ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-ROBOT INTERACTION, 497–505. New York: IEEE.
Vancouver
1.
Vogt P, van den Berghe R, de Haas M, Hoffman L, Kanero J, Mamus E, et al. Second language tutoring using social robots : a large-scale study. HRI  ’19: 2019 14TH ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-ROBOT INTERACTION. New York: IEEE; 2019. p. 497–505.
IEEE
[1]
P. Vogt et al., “Second language tutoring using social robots : a large-scale study,” in HRI ’19: 2019 14TH ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-ROBOT INTERACTION, Daegu, SOUTH KOREA, 2019, pp. 497–505.
@inproceedings{8616773,
  abstract     = {We present a large-scale study of a series of seven lessons designed to help young children learn English vocabulary as a foreign language using a social robot. The experiment was designed to investigate 1) the effectiveness of a social robot teaching children new words over the course of multiple interactions (supported by a tablet), 2) the added benefit of a robot's iconic gestures on word learning and retention, and 3) the effect of learning from a robot tutor accompanied by a tablet versus learning from a tablet application alone. For reasons of transparency, the research questions, hypotheses and methods were preregistered. With a sample size of 194 children, our study was statistically well-powered. Our findings demonstrate that children are able to acquire and retain English vocabulary words taught by a robot tutor to a similar extent as when they are taught by a tablet application. In addition, we found no beneficial effect of a robot's iconic gestures on learning gains.},
  author       = {Vogt, Paul and van den Berghe, Rianne and de Haas, Mirjam and Hoffman, Laura and Kanero, Junko and Mamus, Ezgi and Montanier, Jean-Marc and Oranc, Cansu and Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora and Garcia, Daniel Hernandez and Papadopoulos, Fotios and Schodde, Thorsten and Verhagen, Josje and Wallbridge, Christopher D. and Willemsen, Bram and de Wit, Jan and Belpaeme, Tony and Goksun, Tilbe and Kopp, Stefan and Krahmer, Emiel and Kuntay, Aylin C. and Leseman, Paul and Pandey, Amit Kumar},
  booktitle    = {HRI '19: 2019 14TH ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-ROBOT INTERACTION},
  isbn         = {9781538685556},
  issn         = {2167-2121},
  keywords     = {CHILDREN,PEER,Robots for learning,Second language tutoring,Child-Robot Interaction,Long-term interaction,Gesture},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Daegu, SOUTH KOREA},
  pages        = {497--505},
  publisher    = {IEEE},
  title        = {Second language tutoring using social robots : a large-scale study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/978-1-5386-8555-6/19/$31.00},
  year         = {2019},
}

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