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Tissue (re)distribution of Trypanosoma equiperdum in venereal infected and blood transfused horses

(2019) VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY. 268. p.87-97
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Abstract
Dourine, caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum, is a life-threatening venereal disease in equidae. So far, there is no clear evidence on how and when stallions become infectious, nor which tissues are affected by the parasite in diseased animals. Post-infection, after a transient, temporary phase of parasitaemia, the parasite disperses to different tissues in an unknown distribution pattern. This study describes the distribution of the parasite after infection by artificial insemination (Al) or blood transfusion. Mares (N = 4) were artificially inseminated with T. equiperdum spiked semen whereas stallions (N = 4) were infected by blood transfusion. The course of the disease was monitored by parasitological (Woo) and molecular (PCR) tests and clinical signs and haematological parameters were recorded. At 120 days post infection, horses had a full necropsy, histopathology and PCR. A similar pattern of parasitaemia, disease progression and tissue distribution were seen in all horses. Ejaculated semen in the preclinical stage and epididymal semen in the chronic stage of the disease was positive on PCR and caused infection in mice. Cymelarsan treatment in the chronic stage did not result in a clinico-haematological or histopathological improvement. At necropsy, lesions were observed in the nervous and reproductive system. Histopathological lesions were most severe in the peripheral nerves and associated ganglia, the testicles and genital mucosae with multifocal infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and histocytes. The parasites disseminated to several tissues including the nervous system, testicles and semen. The results indicate that transmission of T. equiperdum is possible through semen even from symptomless stallions post-treatment.
Keywords
Trypanosoma equiperdum, Dourine, Horse, Venereal transmission, Pathology, Cymelarsan, Haematology, BRUCEI INFECTION, DOURINE, EVANSI, PATHOGENESIS, PREVALENCE, VIVAX

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MLA
Ebrahim, Ahmed Yasine et al. “Tissue (re)distribution of Trypanosoma Equiperdum in Venereal Infected and Blood Transfused Horses.” VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY 268 (2019): 87–97. Print.
APA
Ebrahim, A. Y., Daba, M., Ashenafi, H., Geldhof, P., Van Brantegem, L., Vercauteren, G., Demissie, T., et al. (2019). Tissue (re)distribution of Trypanosoma equiperdum in venereal infected and blood transfused horses. VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY, 268, 87–97.
Chicago author-date
Ebrahim, Ahmed Yasine, Merga Daba, Hagos Ashenafi, Peter Geldhof, Leen Van Brantegem, Griet Vercauteren, Tilaye Demissie, et al. 2019. “Tissue (re)distribution of Trypanosoma Equiperdum in Venereal Infected and Blood Transfused Horses.” Veterinary Parasitology 268: 87–97.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Ebrahim, Ahmed Yasine, Merga Daba, Hagos Ashenafi, Peter Geldhof, Leen Van Brantegem, Griet Vercauteren, Tilaye Demissie, Merga Bekana, Alemu Tola, Ann Van Soom, Luc Duchateau, Bruno Goddeeris, and Jan Govaere. 2019. “Tissue (re)distribution of Trypanosoma Equiperdum in Venereal Infected and Blood Transfused Horses.” Veterinary Parasitology 268: 87–97.
Vancouver
1.
Ebrahim AY, Daba M, Ashenafi H, Geldhof P, Van Brantegem L, Vercauteren G, et al. Tissue (re)distribution of Trypanosoma equiperdum in venereal infected and blood transfused horses. VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY. 2019;268:87–97.
IEEE
[1]
A. Y. Ebrahim et al., “Tissue (re)distribution of Trypanosoma equiperdum in venereal infected and blood transfused horses,” VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY, vol. 268, pp. 87–97, 2019.
@article{8616734,
  abstract     = {Dourine, caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum, is a life-threatening venereal disease in equidae. So far, there is no clear evidence on how and when stallions become infectious, nor which tissues are affected by the parasite in diseased animals. Post-infection, after a transient, temporary phase of parasitaemia, the parasite disperses to different tissues in an unknown distribution pattern. This study describes the distribution of the parasite after infection by artificial insemination (Al) or blood transfusion. Mares (N = 4) were artificially inseminated with T. equiperdum spiked semen whereas stallions (N = 4) were infected by blood transfusion. The course of the disease was monitored by parasitological (Woo) and molecular (PCR) tests and clinical signs and haematological parameters were recorded. At 120 days post infection, horses had a full necropsy, histopathology and PCR. A similar pattern of parasitaemia, disease progression and tissue distribution were seen in all horses. Ejaculated semen in the preclinical stage and epididymal semen in the chronic stage of the disease was positive on PCR and caused infection in mice. Cymelarsan treatment in the chronic stage did not result in a clinico-haematological or histopathological improvement. At necropsy, lesions were observed in the nervous and reproductive system. Histopathological lesions were most severe in the peripheral nerves and associated ganglia, the testicles and genital mucosae with multifocal infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and histocytes. The parasites disseminated to several tissues including the nervous system, testicles and semen. The results indicate that transmission of T. equiperdum is possible through semen even from symptomless stallions post-treatment.},
  author       = {Ebrahim, Ahmed Yasine and Daba, Merga and Ashenafi, Hagos and Geldhof, Peter and Van Brantegem, Leen and Vercauteren, Griet and Demissie, Tilaye and Bekana, Merga and Tola, Alemu and Van Soom, Ann and Duchateau, Luc and Goddeeris, Bruno and Govaere, Jan},
  issn         = {0304-4017},
  journal      = {VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY},
  keywords     = {Trypanosoma equiperdum,Dourine,Horse,Venereal transmission,Pathology,Cymelarsan,Haematology,BRUCEI INFECTION,DOURINE,EVANSI,PATHOGENESIS,PREVALENCE,VIVAX},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {87--97},
  title        = {Tissue (re)distribution of Trypanosoma equiperdum in venereal infected and blood transfused horses},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2019.03.007},
  volume       = {268},
  year         = {2019},
}

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