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Fast pyrolysis of mannan-rich ivory nut (Phytelephas aequatorialis) to valuable biorefinery products

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Abstract
Ivory nut residues from the palm Phytelephas aequatorialis were converted via fast pyrolysis into a set of valuable biorefinery products, being (i) pyrolysis liquids rich in levomannosan and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), (ii) biochar, with potential for soil applications, (iii) and non-condensable gases with potential for upgrading and syngas processes. The ivory nut residues were mannan-rich leftovers from button manufacturing in Ecuador. A handful of studies, dating back from the 20th century, have investigated gram-scale valorization of ivory nut to e. g. mannose. Nevertheless, advances in science and technology on biorefinery products called for a comprehensive reassessment of the valorization potential of this underutilized feedstock. A fully equipped, continuously operated lab-scale reactor (200 g. h(-1) feed) was used for pyrolysis at 350 degrees C and 500 degrees C. The pyrolysis liquid yield was 57.53 wt% at 350 degrees C and 60.36 wt% at 500 degrees C. The aqueous phase obtained at 350 degrees C contained 17.5 wt% (d. b.) anhydrosugars, of which 90% was levomannosan, and contained 11.6 wt% (d.b.) furans, of which 56% was 5-HMF and 17% furfural. The carbon stability of the biochars, measured with the Edinburgh accelerated ageing tool, were 40.6% and 64.6%, respectively. Non-condensable gases during pyrolysis at 350 degrees C only were composed of CO2 and CO (CO2: CO molar ratio of 4: 1), while at 500 degrees C, gases were obtained with a CO2: CO: H-2: CH4 molar ratio of 9: 9: 4: 1. Overall, the results demonstrate that pyrolysis of ivory nut holds potential as starting point for valuable biorefinery products.
Keywords
Fast pyrolysis, Biochar, Levomannosan, Platform chemicals, Biorefinery, Ivory nut mannan, CATALYTIC FAST PYROLYSIS, LEVULINIC ACID, PLATFORM CHEMICALS, VEGETABLE IVORY, BIOMASS, CONVERSION, CELLULOSE, HEMICELLULOSE, MOLECULE, MANNOSE

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MLA
Ghysels, Stef, et al. “Fast Pyrolysis of Mannan-Rich Ivory Nut (Phytelephas Aequatorialis) to Valuable Biorefinery Products.” CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL, vol. 373, 2019, pp. 446–57.
APA
Ghysels, S., Estrada Leon, A., Pala, M., Schoder, K., Van Acker, J., & Ronsse, F. (2019). Fast pyrolysis of mannan-rich ivory nut (Phytelephas aequatorialis) to valuable biorefinery products. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL, 373, 446–457.
Chicago author-date
Ghysels, Stef, Adriana Estrada Leon, Mehmet Pala, Katharina Schoder, Joris Van Acker, and Frederik Ronsse. 2019. “Fast Pyrolysis of Mannan-Rich Ivory Nut (Phytelephas Aequatorialis) to Valuable Biorefinery Products.” CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL 373: 446–57.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Ghysels, Stef, Adriana Estrada Leon, Mehmet Pala, Katharina Schoder, Joris Van Acker, and Frederik Ronsse. 2019. “Fast Pyrolysis of Mannan-Rich Ivory Nut (Phytelephas Aequatorialis) to Valuable Biorefinery Products.” CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL 373: 446–457.
Vancouver
1.
Ghysels S, Estrada Leon A, Pala M, Schoder K, Van Acker J, Ronsse F. Fast pyrolysis of mannan-rich ivory nut (Phytelephas aequatorialis) to valuable biorefinery products. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL. 2019;373:446–57.
IEEE
[1]
S. Ghysels, A. Estrada Leon, M. Pala, K. Schoder, J. Van Acker, and F. Ronsse, “Fast pyrolysis of mannan-rich ivory nut (Phytelephas aequatorialis) to valuable biorefinery products,” CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL, vol. 373, pp. 446–457, 2019.
@article{8616087,
  abstract     = {Ivory nut residues from the palm Phytelephas aequatorialis were converted via fast pyrolysis into a set of valuable biorefinery products, being (i) pyrolysis liquids rich in levomannosan and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), (ii) biochar, with potential for soil applications, (iii) and non-condensable gases with potential for upgrading and syngas processes. The ivory nut residues were mannan-rich leftovers from button manufacturing in Ecuador. A handful of studies, dating back from the 20th century, have investigated gram-scale valorization of ivory nut to e. g. mannose. Nevertheless, advances in science and technology on biorefinery products called for a comprehensive reassessment of the valorization potential of this underutilized feedstock. A fully equipped, continuously operated lab-scale reactor (200 g. h(-1) feed) was used for pyrolysis at 350 degrees C and 500 degrees C. The pyrolysis liquid yield was 57.53 wt% at 350 degrees C and 60.36 wt% at 500 degrees C. The aqueous phase obtained at 350 degrees C contained 17.5 wt% (d. b.) anhydrosugars, of which 90% was levomannosan, and contained 11.6 wt% (d.b.) furans, of which 56% was 5-HMF and 17% furfural. The carbon stability of the biochars, measured with the Edinburgh accelerated ageing tool, were 40.6% and 64.6%, respectively. Non-condensable gases during pyrolysis at 350 degrees C only were composed of CO2 and CO (CO2: CO molar ratio of 4: 1), while at 500 degrees C, gases were obtained with a CO2: CO: H-2: CH4 molar ratio of 9: 9: 4: 1. Overall, the results demonstrate that pyrolysis of ivory nut holds potential as starting point for valuable biorefinery products.},
  author       = {Ghysels, Stef and Estrada Leon, Adriana and Pala, Mehmet and Schoder, Katharina and Van Acker, Joris and Ronsse, Frederik},
  issn         = {1385-8947},
  journal      = {CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {Fast pyrolysis,Biochar,Levomannosan,Platform chemicals,Biorefinery,Ivory nut mannan,CATALYTIC FAST PYROLYSIS,LEVULINIC ACID,PLATFORM CHEMICALS,VEGETABLE IVORY,BIOMASS,CONVERSION,CELLULOSE,HEMICELLULOSE,MOLECULE,MANNOSE},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {446--457},
  title        = {Fast pyrolysis of mannan-rich ivory nut (Phytelephas aequatorialis) to valuable biorefinery products},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.05.042},
  volume       = {373},
  year         = {2019},
}

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