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Formation and transport of lead oxide in a non-isothermal lead-bismuth eutectic loop

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Abstract
Lead oxide (PbO) formation can occur in Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE)-cooled nuclear systems in case of oxygen ingress or temperature decrease of the coolant beyond the normal operation ranges. In the present work the formation of lead oxide in an actively cooled LBE flow is studied. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to predict the nucleation, growth and dissolution of PbO particles. Solid oxide particles are modeled as a pseudocontinuous phase, using the Kinetic Theory of Granular Flow (KTGF) to account for particle-flow interaction. The particle size distribution (PSD) is accounted for using Population Balance Equations/Models (PBE/PBM). The results obtained from the model are qualitatively in good agreement with experimental results obtained in the MEXICO loop at SCK.CEN. The calculated PSD reveals that the majority of the oxide particles are expected to be in the sub-micron range. Experimental results indicate that in the studied conditions PbO nucleates in the LBE bulk leading to suspended particles in the LBE flow.
Keywords
Nuclear and High Energy Physics, Mechanical Engineering, Waste Management and Disposal, General Materials Science, Nuclear Energy and Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality, Lead-bismuth eutectic, Accelerator Driven System, Nucleation, Oxidation, KTGF, Lead oxide, POTENTIOMETRIC OXYGEN SENSORS, LIQUID LEAD, GRANULAR FLOW, PARTICLES, PERFORMANCE, LBE

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MLA
Gladinez, Kristof, et al. “Formation and Transport of Lead Oxide in a Non-Isothermal Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Loop.” NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND DESIGN, vol. 349, 2019, pp. 78–85, doi:10.1016/j.nucengdes.2019.04.021.
APA
Gladinez, K., Rosseel, K., Lim, J., Marino, A., Heynderickx, G., & Aerts, A. (2019). Formation and transport of lead oxide in a non-isothermal lead-bismuth eutectic loop. NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND DESIGN, 349, 78–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nucengdes.2019.04.021
Chicago author-date
Gladinez, Kristof, Kris Rosseel, Jun Lim, Alessandro Marino, Geraldine Heynderickx, and Alexander Aerts. 2019. “Formation and Transport of Lead Oxide in a Non-Isothermal Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Loop.” NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND DESIGN 349: 78–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nucengdes.2019.04.021.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Gladinez, Kristof, Kris Rosseel, Jun Lim, Alessandro Marino, Geraldine Heynderickx, and Alexander Aerts. 2019. “Formation and Transport of Lead Oxide in a Non-Isothermal Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Loop.” NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND DESIGN 349: 78–85. doi:10.1016/j.nucengdes.2019.04.021.
Vancouver
1.
Gladinez K, Rosseel K, Lim J, Marino A, Heynderickx G, Aerts A. Formation and transport of lead oxide in a non-isothermal lead-bismuth eutectic loop. NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND DESIGN. 2019;349:78–85.
IEEE
[1]
K. Gladinez, K. Rosseel, J. Lim, A. Marino, G. Heynderickx, and A. Aerts, “Formation and transport of lead oxide in a non-isothermal lead-bismuth eutectic loop,” NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND DESIGN, vol. 349, pp. 78–85, 2019.
@article{8615625,
  abstract     = {{Lead oxide (PbO) formation can occur in Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE)-cooled nuclear systems in case of oxygen ingress or temperature decrease of the coolant beyond the normal operation ranges. In the present work the formation of lead oxide in an actively cooled LBE flow is studied. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to predict the nucleation, growth and dissolution of PbO particles. Solid oxide particles are modeled as a pseudocontinuous phase, using the Kinetic Theory of Granular Flow (KTGF) to account for particle-flow interaction. The particle size distribution (PSD) is accounted for using Population Balance Equations/Models (PBE/PBM). The results obtained from the model are qualitatively in good agreement with experimental results obtained in the MEXICO loop at SCK.CEN. The calculated PSD reveals that the majority of the oxide particles are expected to be in the sub-micron range. Experimental results indicate that in the studied conditions PbO nucleates in the LBE bulk leading to suspended particles in the LBE flow.}},
  author       = {{Gladinez, Kristof and Rosseel, Kris and Lim, Jun and Marino, Alessandro and Heynderickx, Geraldine and Aerts, Alexander}},
  isbn         = {{1872-759X}},
  issn         = {{0029-5493}},
  journal      = {{NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND DESIGN}},
  keywords     = {{Nuclear and High Energy Physics,Mechanical Engineering,Waste Management and Disposal,General Materials Science,Nuclear Energy and Engineering,Safety,Risk,Reliability and Quality,Lead-bismuth eutectic,Accelerator Driven System,Nucleation,Oxidation,KTGF,Lead oxide,POTENTIOMETRIC OXYGEN SENSORS,LIQUID LEAD,GRANULAR FLOW,PARTICLES,PERFORMANCE,LBE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{78--85}},
  title        = {{Formation and transport of lead oxide in a non-isothermal lead-bismuth eutectic loop}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nucengdes.2019.04.021}},
  volume       = {{349}},
  year         = {{2019}},
}

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