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11C-Autoradiographs to image phloem loading

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Abstract
Generally, tree species load photoassimilates passively into the phloem, while herbaceous species load actively. These phloem loading strategies have implications for phloem sugar concentration and growth potential. Whereas, in previous research, phloem loading identification was performed with C-14-autoradiography, we suggest C-11-autoradiography, because of its compatibility with plant-PET (positron emission tomography) scans. Because C-11-autoradiography has been hardly used in plant sciences so far, it was tested in contrasting plant species: one temperate tree species, Populus tremula L., three tropical tree species, Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. & Perr.) Brenan, E. ivorense A. Chev., and Maesopsis eminii Engl., and two herbaceous crop species Solanum lycopersicum L. and S. tuberosum L. Our results confirmed that P. tremula is a passive loader, and Solanum spp. are active loaders. Erythrophleum spp. and young leaves of M. eminii showed the expected passive loading strategy, but the mature leaves of M. eminii showed an uncommon pattern. Images corrected for leaf tissue thickness supported that mature leaves of M. eminii used active phloem loading, which is linked to continuous investment in growth and new leaves, supporting the lower carbon storage levels often observed in tropical tree species. With this study, we demonstrate that C-11-autoradiography is a powerful tool to acquire detailed tracer distribution in leaves to typify phloem loading strategies in plant species.
Keywords
autoradiography, carbon-11 (C-11), phloem loading, carbon distribution, Populus tremula L., Erythrophleum spp., Maesopsis eminni Engl., Solanum spp., WATER RELATIONS, POSITRON RANGE, TRANSPORT, TREES, LEAF, DYNAMICS, PLANTS, XYLEM, ANATOMY, STRATEGIES

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MLA
Hubeau, Michiel, et al. “11C-Autoradiographs to Image Phloem Loading.” FRONTIERS IN FORESTS AND GLOBAL CHANGE, vol. 2, 2019, doi:10.3389/ffgc.2019.00020.
APA
Hubeau, M., Mincke, J., Vanhove, C., Gorel, A. P., Fayolle, A., Epila, J., … Steppe, K. (2019). 11C-Autoradiographs to image phloem loading. FRONTIERS IN FORESTS AND GLOBAL CHANGE, 2. https://doi.org/10.3389/ffgc.2019.00020
Chicago author-date
Hubeau, Michiel, Jens Mincke, Christian Vanhove, Anaïs Pasiphaé Gorel, Adeline Fayolle, Jackie Epila, Olivier Leroux, Stefaan Vandenberghe, and Kathy Steppe. 2019. “11C-Autoradiographs to Image Phloem Loading.” FRONTIERS IN FORESTS AND GLOBAL CHANGE 2. https://doi.org/10.3389/ffgc.2019.00020.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Hubeau, Michiel, Jens Mincke, Christian Vanhove, Anaïs Pasiphaé Gorel, Adeline Fayolle, Jackie Epila, Olivier Leroux, Stefaan Vandenberghe, and Kathy Steppe. 2019. “11C-Autoradiographs to Image Phloem Loading.” FRONTIERS IN FORESTS AND GLOBAL CHANGE 2. doi:10.3389/ffgc.2019.00020.
Vancouver
1.
Hubeau M, Mincke J, Vanhove C, Gorel AP, Fayolle A, Epila J, et al. 11C-Autoradiographs to image phloem loading. FRONTIERS IN FORESTS AND GLOBAL CHANGE. 2019;2.
IEEE
[1]
M. Hubeau et al., “11C-Autoradiographs to image phloem loading,” FRONTIERS IN FORESTS AND GLOBAL CHANGE, vol. 2, 2019.
@article{8615525,
  abstract     = {{Generally, tree species load photoassimilates passively into the phloem, while herbaceous species load actively. These phloem loading strategies have implications for phloem sugar concentration and growth potential. Whereas, in previous research, phloem loading identification was performed with C-14-autoradiography, we suggest C-11-autoradiography, because of its compatibility with plant-PET (positron emission tomography) scans. Because C-11-autoradiography has been hardly used in plant sciences so far, it was tested in contrasting plant species: one temperate tree species, Populus tremula L., three tropical tree species, Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. & Perr.) Brenan, E. ivorense A. Chev., and Maesopsis eminii Engl., and two herbaceous crop species Solanum lycopersicum L. and S. tuberosum L. Our results confirmed that P. tremula is a passive loader, and Solanum spp. are active loaders. Erythrophleum spp. and young leaves of M. eminii showed the expected passive loading strategy, but the mature leaves of M. eminii showed an uncommon pattern. Images corrected for leaf tissue thickness supported that mature leaves of M. eminii used active phloem loading, which is linked to continuous investment in growth and new leaves, supporting the lower carbon storage levels often observed in tropical tree species. With this study, we demonstrate that C-11-autoradiography is a powerful tool to acquire detailed tracer distribution in leaves to typify phloem loading strategies in plant species.}},
  articleno    = {{20}},
  author       = {{Hubeau, Michiel and Mincke, Jens and Vanhove, Christian and Gorel, Anaïs Pasiphaé and Fayolle, Adeline and Epila, Jackie and Leroux, Olivier and Vandenberghe, Stefaan and Steppe, Kathy}},
  issn         = {{2624-893X}},
  journal      = {{FRONTIERS IN FORESTS AND GLOBAL CHANGE}},
  keywords     = {{autoradiography,carbon-11 (C-11),phloem loading,carbon distribution,Populus tremula L.,Erythrophleum spp.,Maesopsis eminni Engl.,Solanum spp.,WATER RELATIONS,POSITRON RANGE,TRANSPORT,TREES,LEAF,DYNAMICS,PLANTS,XYLEM,ANATOMY,STRATEGIES}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{11}},
  title        = {{11C-Autoradiographs to image phloem loading}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/ffgc.2019.00020}},
  volume       = {{2}},
  year         = {{2019}},
}

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