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Birth size and gestational age in opposite-sex twins as compared to same-sex twins : an individual-based pooled analysis of 21 cohorts

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Abstract
It is well established that boys are born heavier and longer than girls, but it remains unclear whether birth size in twins is affected by the sex of their co-twin. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 21 twin cohorts in 15 countries derived from the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), including 67,850 dizygotic twin individuals. Linear regression analyses showed that boys having a co-twin sister were, on average, 31 g (95%Cl 18 to 45) heavier and 0.16 cm (95%CI 0.045 to 0.274) longer than those with a co-twin brother. In girls, birth size was not associated (5 g birth weight; 95%Cl -8 to -18 and -0.089 cm birth length; 95% CI -0.202 to 0.025) with the sex of the co-twin. Gestational age was slightly shorter in boy-boy pairs than in boy-girl and girl-girl pairs. When birth size was standardized by gestational age, the magnitude of the associations was attenuated in boys, particularly for birth weight. In conclusion, boys with a co-twin sister are heavier and longer at birth than those with a co-twin brother. However, these differences are modest and partly explained by a longer gestation in the presence of a co-twin sister.
Keywords
FETAL-GROWTH, DIZYGOTIC TWINS, WEIGHT, MORTALITY, GENDER, LENGTH, PREGNANCIES, ADULTHOOD, ANDROGENS, RISK

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MLA
Jelenkovic, Aline, et al. “Birth Size and Gestational Age in Opposite-Sex Twins as Compared to Same-Sex Twins : An Individual-Based Pooled Analysis of 21 Cohorts.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 8, 2018.
APA
Jelenkovic, A., Sund, R., Yokoyama, Y., Hur, Y.-M., Ullemar, V., Almqvist, C., … Silventoinen, K. (2018). Birth size and gestational age in opposite-sex twins as compared to same-sex twins : an individual-based pooled analysis of 21 cohorts. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 8.
Chicago author-date
Jelenkovic, Aline, Reijo Sund, Yoshie Yokoyama, Yoon-Mi Hur, Vilhelmina Ullemar, Catarina Almqvist, Patrik KE Magnusson, et al. 2018. “Birth Size and Gestational Age in Opposite-Sex Twins as Compared to Same-Sex Twins : An Individual-Based Pooled Analysis of 21 Cohorts.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 8.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Jelenkovic, Aline, Reijo Sund, Yoshie Yokoyama, Yoon-Mi Hur, Vilhelmina Ullemar, Catarina Almqvist, Patrik KE Magnusson, Gonneke Willemsen, Meike Bartels, Catharina EM van Beijsterveldt, Leonie H Bogl, Kirsi H Pietilainen, Eero Vuoksimaa, Fuling Ji, Feng Ning, Zengchang Pang, Tracy Nelson, Keith E Whitfield, Esther Rebato, Clare H Llewellyn, Abigail Fisher, Gombojav Bayasgalan, Danshiitsoodol Narandalai, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Henning Beck-Nielsen, Morten Sodemann, Adam D Tarnoki, David L Tarnoki, Syuichi Ooki, Maria A Stazi, Corrado Fagnani, Sonia Brescianini, Lise Dubois, Michel Boivin, Mara Brendgen, Ginette Dionne, Frank Vitaro, Tessa L Cutler, John L Hopper, Robert F Krueger, Matt McGue, Shandell Pahlen, Jeffrey M Craig, Richard Saffery, Claire MA Haworth, Robert Plomin, Ariel Knafo-Noam, David Mankuta, Lior Abramson, S Alexandra Burt, Kelly L Klump, Robert F Vlietinck, Catherine Derom, Ruth JF Loos, Dorret I Boomsma, Thorkild IA Sorensen, Jaakko Kaprio, and Karri Silventoinen. 2018. “Birth Size and Gestational Age in Opposite-Sex Twins as Compared to Same-Sex Twins : An Individual-Based Pooled Analysis of 21 Cohorts.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 8.
Vancouver
1.
Jelenkovic A, Sund R, Yokoyama Y, Hur Y-M, Ullemar V, Almqvist C, et al. Birth size and gestational age in opposite-sex twins as compared to same-sex twins : an individual-based pooled analysis of 21 cohorts. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. 2018;8.
IEEE
[1]
A. Jelenkovic et al., “Birth size and gestational age in opposite-sex twins as compared to same-sex twins : an individual-based pooled analysis of 21 cohorts,” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 8, 2018.
@article{8615389,
  abstract     = {It is well established that boys are born heavier and longer than girls, but it remains unclear whether birth size in twins is affected by the sex of their co-twin. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 21 twin cohorts in 15 countries derived from the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), including 67,850 dizygotic twin individuals. Linear regression analyses showed that boys having a co-twin sister were, on average, 31 g (95%Cl 18 to 45) heavier and 0.16 cm (95%CI 0.045 to 0.274) longer than those with a co-twin brother. In girls, birth size was not associated (5 g birth weight; 95%Cl -8 to -18 and -0.089 cm birth length; 95% CI -0.202 to 0.025) with the sex of the co-twin. Gestational age was slightly shorter in boy-boy pairs than in boy-girl and girl-girl pairs. When birth size was standardized by gestational age, the magnitude of the associations was attenuated in boys, particularly for birth weight. In conclusion, boys with a co-twin sister are heavier and longer at birth than those with a co-twin brother. However, these differences are modest and partly explained by a longer gestation in the presence of a co-twin sister.},
  articleno    = {6300},
  author       = {Jelenkovic, Aline and Sund, Reijo and Yokoyama, Yoshie and Hur, Yoon-Mi and Ullemar, Vilhelmina and Almqvist, Catarina and Magnusson, Patrik KE and Willemsen, Gonneke and Bartels, Meike and van Beijsterveldt, Catharina EM and Bogl, Leonie H and Pietilainen, Kirsi H and Vuoksimaa, Eero and Ji, Fuling and Ning, Feng and Pang, Zengchang and Nelson, Tracy and Whitfield, Keith E and Rebato, Esther and Llewellyn, Clare H and Fisher, Abigail and Bayasgalan, Gombojav and Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol and Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten and Beck-Nielsen, Henning and Sodemann, Morten and Tarnoki, Adam D and Tarnoki, David L and Ooki, Syuichi and Stazi, Maria A and Fagnani, Corrado and Brescianini, Sonia and Dubois, Lise and Boivin, Michel and Brendgen, Mara and Dionne, Ginette and Vitaro, Frank and Cutler, Tessa L and Hopper, John L and Krueger, Robert F and McGue, Matt and Pahlen, Shandell and Craig, Jeffrey M and Saffery, Richard and Haworth, Claire MA and Plomin, Robert and Knafo-Noam, Ariel and Mankuta, David and Abramson, Lior and Burt, S Alexandra and Klump, Kelly L and Vlietinck, Robert F and Derom, Catherine and Loos, Ruth JF and Boomsma, Dorret I and Sorensen, Thorkild IA and Kaprio, Jaakko and Silventoinen, Karri},
  issn         = {2045-2322},
  journal      = {SCIENTIFIC REPORTS},
  keywords     = {FETAL-GROWTH,DIZYGOTIC TWINS,WEIGHT,MORTALITY,GENDER,LENGTH,PREGNANCIES,ADULTHOOD,ANDROGENS,RISK},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {8},
  title        = {Birth size and gestational age in opposite-sex twins as compared to same-sex twins : an individual-based pooled analysis of 21 cohorts},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-24634-2},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2018},
}

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