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Genetic and environmental factors affecting birth size variation : a pooled individual-based analysis of secular trends and global geographical differences using 26 twin cohorts

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Abstract
Background: The genetic architecture of birth size may differ geographically and over time. We examined differences in the genetic and environmental contributions to birthweight, length and ponderal index (PI) across geographical-cultural regions (Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia) and across birth cohorts, and how gestational age modifies these effects. Methods: Data from 26 twin cohorts in 16 countries including 57 613 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs were pooled. Genetic and environmental variations of birth size were estimated using genetic structural equation modelling. Results: The variance of birthweight and length was predominantly explained by shared environmental factors, whereas the variance of PI was explained both by shared and unique environmental factors. Genetic variance contributing to birth size was small. Adjusting for gestational age decreased the proportions of shared environmental variance and increased the propositions of unique environmental variance. Genetic variance was similar in the geographical-cultural regions, but shared environmental variance was smaller in East Asia than in Europe and North America and Australia. The total variance and shared environmental variance of birth length and PI were greater from the birth cohort 1990-99 onwards compared with the birth cohorts from 1970-79 to 1980-89. Conclusions: The contribution of genetic factors to birth size is smaller than that of shared environmental factors, which is partly explained by gestational age. Shared environmental variances of birth length and PI were greater in the latest birth cohorts and differed also across geographical-cultural regions. Shared environmental factors are important when explaining differences in the variation of birth size globally and over time.
Keywords
PRETERM BIRTH, UNITED-STATES, BLOOD-PRESSURE, WEIGHT, OUTCOMES, GROWTH, LENGTH, RATES, RISK, AGE, Birthweight, birth length, ponderal index, twins, genetics, pooled, studies

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MLA
Yokoyama, Yoshie et al. “Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Size Variation : a Pooled Individual-based Analysis of Secular Trends and Global Geographical Differences Using 26 Twin Cohorts.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 47.4 (2018): 1195–1206. Print.
APA
Yokoyama, Y., Jelenkovic, A., Hur, Y.-M., Sund, R., Fagnani, C., Stazi, M. A., Brescianini, S., et al. (2018). Genetic and environmental factors affecting birth size variation : a pooled individual-based analysis of secular trends and global geographical differences using 26 twin cohorts. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, 47(4), 1195–1206.
Chicago author-date
Yokoyama, Yoshie, Aline Jelenkovic, Yoon-Mi Hur, Reijo Sund, Corrado Fagnani, Maria A Stazi, Sonia Brescianini, et al. 2018. “Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Size Variation : a Pooled Individual-based Analysis of Secular Trends and Global Geographical Differences Using 26 Twin Cohorts.” International Journal of Epidemiology 47 (4): 1195–1206.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Yokoyama, Yoshie, Aline Jelenkovic, Yoon-Mi Hur, Reijo Sund, Corrado Fagnani, Maria A Stazi, Sonia Brescianini, Fuling Ji, Feng Ning, Zengchang Pang, Ariel Knafo-Noam, David Mankuta, Lior Abramson, Esther Rebato, John L Hopper, Tessa L Cutler, Kimberly J Saudino, Tracy L Nelson, Keith E Whitfield, Robin P Corley, Brooke M Huibregtse, Catherine Derom, Robert F Vlietinck, Ruth JF Loos, Clare H Llewellyn, Abigail Fisher, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Henning Beck-Nielsen, Morten Sodemann, Robert F Krueger, Matt McGue, Shandell Pahlen, Meike Bartels, Catharina EM van Beijsterveldt, Gonneke Willemsen, Jennifer R Harris, Ingunn Brandt, Thomas S Nilsen, Jeffrey M Craig, Richard Saffery, Lise Dubois, Michel Boivin, Mara Brendgen, Ginette Dionne, Frank Vitaro, Claire MA Haworth, Robert Plomin, Gombojav Bayasgalan, Danshiitsoodol Narandalai, Finn Rasmussen, Per Tynelius, Adam D Tarnoki, David L Tarnoki, Syuichi Ooki, Richard J Rose, Kirsi H Pietilainen, Thorkild IA Sorensen, Dorret I Boomsma, Jaakko Kaprio, and Karri Silventoinen. 2018. “Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Size Variation : a Pooled Individual-based Analysis of Secular Trends and Global Geographical Differences Using 26 Twin Cohorts.” International Journal of Epidemiology 47 (4): 1195–1206.
Vancouver
1.
Yokoyama Y, Jelenkovic A, Hur Y-M, Sund R, Fagnani C, Stazi MA, et al. Genetic and environmental factors affecting birth size variation : a pooled individual-based analysis of secular trends and global geographical differences using 26 twin cohorts. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY. 2018;47(4):1195–206.
IEEE
[1]
Y. Yokoyama et al., “Genetic and environmental factors affecting birth size variation : a pooled individual-based analysis of secular trends and global geographical differences using 26 twin cohorts,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 1195–1206, 2018.
@article{8615386,
  abstract     = {Background: The genetic architecture of birth size may differ geographically and over time. We examined differences in the genetic and environmental contributions to birthweight, length and ponderal index (PI) across geographical-cultural regions (Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia) and across birth cohorts, and how gestational age modifies these effects. 
Methods: Data from 26 twin cohorts in 16 countries including 57 613 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs were pooled. Genetic and environmental variations of birth size were estimated using genetic structural equation modelling. 
Results: The variance of birthweight and length was predominantly explained by shared environmental factors, whereas the variance of PI was explained both by shared and unique environmental factors. Genetic variance contributing to birth size was small. Adjusting for gestational age decreased the proportions of shared environmental variance and increased the propositions of unique environmental variance. Genetic variance was similar in the geographical-cultural regions, but shared environmental variance was smaller in East Asia than in Europe and North America and Australia. The total variance and shared environmental variance of birth length and PI were greater from the birth cohort 1990-99 onwards compared with the birth cohorts from 1970-79 to 1980-89. 
Conclusions: The contribution of genetic factors to birth size is smaller than that of shared environmental factors, which is partly explained by gestational age. Shared environmental variances of birth length and PI were greater in the latest birth cohorts and differed also across geographical-cultural regions. Shared environmental factors are important when explaining differences in the variation of birth size globally and over time.},
  author       = {Yokoyama, Yoshie and Jelenkovic, Aline and Hur, Yoon-Mi and Sund, Reijo and Fagnani, Corrado and Stazi, Maria A and Brescianini, Sonia and Ji, Fuling and Ning, Feng and Pang, Zengchang and Knafo-Noam, Ariel and Mankuta, David and Abramson, Lior and Rebato, Esther and Hopper, John L and Cutler, Tessa L and Saudino, Kimberly J and Nelson, Tracy L and Whitfield, Keith E and Corley, Robin P and Huibregtse, Brooke M and Derom, Catherine and Vlietinck, Robert F and Loos, Ruth JF and Llewellyn, Clare H and Fisher, Abigail and Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten and Beck-Nielsen, Henning and Sodemann, Morten and Krueger, Robert F and McGue, Matt and Pahlen, Shandell and Bartels, Meike and van Beijsterveldt, Catharina EM and Willemsen, Gonneke and Harris, Jennifer R and Brandt, Ingunn and Nilsen, Thomas S and Craig, Jeffrey M and Saffery, Richard and Dubois, Lise and Boivin, Michel and Brendgen, Mara and Dionne, Ginette and Vitaro, Frank and Haworth, Claire MA and Plomin, Robert and Bayasgalan, Gombojav and Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol and Rasmussen, Finn and Tynelius, Per and Tarnoki, Adam D and Tarnoki, David L and Ooki, Syuichi and Rose, Richard J and Pietilainen, Kirsi H and Sorensen, Thorkild IA and Boomsma, Dorret I and Kaprio, Jaakko and Silventoinen, Karri},
  issn         = {0300-5771},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {PRETERM BIRTH,UNITED-STATES,BLOOD-PRESSURE,WEIGHT,OUTCOMES,GROWTH,LENGTH,RATES,RISK,AGE,Birthweight,birth length,ponderal index,twins,genetics,pooled,studies},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {1195--1206},
  title        = {Genetic and environmental factors affecting birth size variation : a pooled individual-based analysis of secular trends and global geographical differences using 26 twin cohorts},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyy081},
  volume       = {47},
  year         = {2018},
}

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