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Association of current and former smoking with body mass index : a study of smoking discordant twin pairs from 21 twin cohorts

(2018) PLOS ONE. 13(7).
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Abstract
Background : Smokers tend to weigh less than never smokers, while successful quitting leads to an increase in body weight. Because smokers and non-smokers may differ in genetic and environmental family background, we analysed data from twin pairs in which the co-twins differed by their smoking behaviour to evaluate if the association between smoking and body mass index (BMI) remains after controlling for family background. Methods and findings : The international CODATwins database includes information on smoking and BMI measured between 1960 and 2012 from 156,593 twin individuals 18-69 years of age. Individual-based data (230,378 measurements) and data of smoking discordant twin pairs (altogether 30,014 pairwise measurements, 36% from monozygotic [MZ] pairs) were analysed with linear fixed-effects regression models by 10-year periods. In MZ pairs, the smoking co-twin had, on average, 0.57 kg/m(2) lower BMI in men (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.70) and 0.65 kg/m(2) lower BMI in women (95% CI: 0.52, 0.79) than the never smoking co-twin. Former smokers had 0.70 kg/m(2) higher BMI among men (95% CI: 0.63, 0.78) and 0.62 kg/m(2) higher BMI among women (95% CI: 0.51, 0.73) than their currently smoking MZ cotwins. Little difference in BMI was observed when comparing former smoking co-twins with their never smoking MZ co-twins (0.13 kg/m(2), 95% CI 0.04, 0.23 among men; -0.04 kg/m(2), 95% CI -0.16, 0.09 among women). The associations were similar within dizygotic pairs and when analysing twins as individuals. The observed series of cross-sectional associations were independent of sex, age, and measurement decade. Conclusions : Smoking is associated with lower BMI and smoking cessation with higher BMI. However, the net effect of smoking and subsequent cessation on weight development appears to be minimal, i.e. never more than an average of 0.7 kg/m(2).
Keywords
WEIGHT-GAIN, CAUSAL INFERENCE, METAANALYSIS, CIGARETTE, CESSATION, BEHAVIOR, SMOKERS, OBESITY, SEVERITY, NEVER

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Citation

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MLA
Piirtola, Maarit et al. “Association of Current and Former Smoking with Body Mass Index : a Study of Smoking Discordant Twin Pairs from 21 Twin Cohorts.” PLOS ONE 13.7 (2018): n. pag. Print.
APA
Piirtola, M., Jelenkovic, A., Latvala, A., Sund, R., Honda, C., Inui, F., Watanabe, M., et al. (2018). Association of current and former smoking with body mass index : a study of smoking discordant twin pairs from 21 twin cohorts. PLOS ONE, 13(7).
Chicago author-date
Piirtola, Maarit, Aline Jelenkovic, Antti Latvala, Reijo Sund, Chika Honda, Fujio Inui, Mikio Watanabe, et al. 2018. “Association of Current and Former Smoking with Body Mass Index : a Study of Smoking Discordant Twin Pairs from 21 Twin Cohorts.” Plos One 13 (7).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Piirtola, Maarit, Aline Jelenkovic, Antti Latvala, Reijo Sund, Chika Honda, Fujio Inui, Mikio Watanabe, Rie Tomizawa, Yoshinori Iwatani, Juan R Ordonana, Juan F Sanchez-Romera, Lucia Colodro-Conde, Adam D Tarnoki, David L Tarnoki, Nicholas G Martin, Grant W Montgomery, Sarah E Medland, Finn Rasmussen, Per Tynelius, Qihua Tan, Dongfeng Zhang, Zengchang Pang, Esther Rebato, Maria A Stazi, Corrado Fagnani, Sonia Brescianini, Andreas Busjahn, Jennifer R Harris, Ingunn Brandt, Thomas Sevenius Nilsen, Tessa L Cutler, John L Hopper, Robin P Corley, Brooke M Huibregtse, Joohon Sung, Jina Kim, Jooyeon Lee, Sooji Lee, Margaret Gatz, David A Butler, Carol E Franz, William S Kremen, Michael J Lyons, Patrik KE Magnusson, Nancy L Pedersen, Anna K Dahl Aslan, Sevgi Y Oncel, Fazil Aliev, Catherine Derom, Robert F Vlietinck, Ruth JF Loos, Judy L Silberg, Hermine H Maes, Dorret I Boomsma, Thorkild IA Sorensen, Tellervo Korhonen, Jaakko Kaprio, and Karri Silventoinen. 2018. “Association of Current and Former Smoking with Body Mass Index : a Study of Smoking Discordant Twin Pairs from 21 Twin Cohorts.” Plos One 13 (7).
Vancouver
1.
Piirtola M, Jelenkovic A, Latvala A, Sund R, Honda C, Inui F, et al. Association of current and former smoking with body mass index : a study of smoking discordant twin pairs from 21 twin cohorts. PLOS ONE. 2018;13(7).
IEEE
[1]
M. Piirtola et al., “Association of current and former smoking with body mass index : a study of smoking discordant twin pairs from 21 twin cohorts,” PLOS ONE, vol. 13, no. 7, 2018.
@article{8615376,
  abstract     = {{Background : Smokers tend to weigh less than never smokers, while successful quitting leads to an increase in body weight. Because smokers and non-smokers may differ in genetic and environmental family background, we analysed data from twin pairs in which the co-twins differed by their smoking behaviour to evaluate if the association between smoking and body mass index (BMI) remains after controlling for family background. 
Methods and findings : The international CODATwins database includes information on smoking and BMI measured between 1960 and 2012 from 156,593 twin individuals 18-69 years of age. Individual-based data (230,378 measurements) and data of smoking discordant twin pairs (altogether 30,014 pairwise measurements, 36% from monozygotic [MZ] pairs) were analysed with linear fixed-effects regression models by 10-year periods. In MZ pairs, the smoking co-twin had, on average, 0.57 kg/m(2) lower BMI in men (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.70) and 0.65 kg/m(2) lower BMI in women (95% CI: 0.52, 0.79) than the never smoking co-twin. Former smokers had 0.70 kg/m(2) higher BMI among men (95% CI: 0.63, 0.78) and 0.62 kg/m(2) higher BMI among women (95% CI: 0.51, 0.73) than their currently smoking MZ cotwins. Little difference in BMI was observed when comparing former smoking co-twins with their never smoking MZ co-twins (0.13 kg/m(2), 95% CI 0.04, 0.23 among men; -0.04 kg/m(2), 95% CI -0.16, 0.09 among women). The associations were similar within dizygotic pairs and when analysing twins as individuals. The observed series of cross-sectional associations were independent of sex, age, and measurement decade. 
Conclusions : Smoking is associated with lower BMI and smoking cessation with higher BMI. However, the net effect of smoking and subsequent cessation on weight development appears to be minimal, i.e. never more than an average of 0.7 kg/m(2).}},
  articleno    = {{e0200140}},
  author       = {{Piirtola, Maarit and Jelenkovic, Aline and Latvala, Antti and Sund, Reijo and Honda, Chika and Inui, Fujio and Watanabe, Mikio and Tomizawa, Rie and Iwatani, Yoshinori and Ordonana, Juan R and Sanchez-Romera, Juan F and Colodro-Conde, Lucia and Tarnoki, Adam D and Tarnoki, David L and Martin, Nicholas G and Montgomery, Grant W and Medland, Sarah E and Rasmussen, Finn and Tynelius, Per and Tan, Qihua and Zhang, Dongfeng and Pang, Zengchang and Rebato, Esther and Stazi, Maria A and Fagnani, Corrado and Brescianini, Sonia and Busjahn, Andreas and Harris, Jennifer R and Brandt, Ingunn and Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius and Cutler, Tessa L and Hopper, John L and Corley, Robin P and Huibregtse, Brooke M and Sung, Joohon and Kim, Jina and Lee, Jooyeon and Lee, Sooji and Gatz, Margaret and Butler, David A and Franz, Carol E and Kremen, William S and Lyons, Michael J and Magnusson, Patrik KE and Pedersen, Nancy L and Aslan, Anna K Dahl and Oncel, Sevgi Y and Aliev, Fazil and Derom, Catherine and Vlietinck, Robert F and Loos, Ruth JF and Silberg, Judy L and Maes, Hermine H and Boomsma, Dorret I and Sorensen, Thorkild IA and Korhonen, Tellervo and Kaprio, Jaakko and Silventoinen, Karri}},
  issn         = {{1932-6203}},
  journal      = {{PLOS ONE}},
  keywords     = {{WEIGHT-GAIN,CAUSAL INFERENCE,METAANALYSIS,CIGARETTE,CESSATION,BEHAVIOR,SMOKERS,OBESITY,SEVERITY,NEVER}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{7}},
  pages        = {{17}},
  title        = {{Association of current and former smoking with body mass index : a study of smoking discordant twin pairs from 21 twin cohorts}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200140}},
  volume       = {{13}},
  year         = {{2018}},
}

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