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13C Incorporation as a tool to estimate biomass yields in thermophilic and mesophilic nitrifying communities

Tom Vandekerckhove (UGent) , Samuel Bodé (UGent) , Chaïm De Mulder (UGent) , Siegfried Vlaeminck (UGent) and Nico Boon (UGent)
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Abstract
Current methods determining biomass yield require sophisticated sensors for in situ measurements or multiple steady-state reactor runs. Determining the yield of specific groups of organisms in mixed cultures in a fast and easy manner remains challenging. This study describes a fast method to estimate the maximum biomass yield (Y-max ), based on C-13 incorporation during activity measurements. It was applied to mixed cultures containing ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) or archaea (AOA) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB), grown under mesophilic (15-28 degrees C) and thermophilic (50 degrees C) conditions. Using this method, no distinction could be made between AOB and AOA co-existing in a community. A slight overestimation of the nitrifier biomass due to C-13 redirection via SMP to heterotrophs could occur, meaning that this method determines the carbon fixation activity of the autotrophic microorganisms rather than the actual nitrifier biomass yield. Thermophilic AOA yields exceeded mesophilic AOB yields (0.22 vs. 0.06-0.11 g VSS g(-1) N), possibly linked to a more efficient pathway for CO(2 )incorporation. NOB thermophilically produced less biomass (0.025-0.028 vs. 0.048-0.051 g VSS g(-1) N), conceivably attributed to higher maintenance requirement, rendering less energy available for biomass synthesis. Interestingly, thermophilic nitrification yield was higher than its mesophilic counterpart, due to the dominance of AOA over AOB at higher temperatures. An instant temperature increase impacted the mesophilic AOB yield, corroborating the effect of maintenance requirement on production capacity. Model simulations of two realistic nitrification/denitrification plants were robust toward changing nitrifier yield in predicting effluent ammonium concentrations, whereas sludge composition was impacted. Summarized, a fast, precise and easily executable method was developed determining Y(max )of ammonia and nitrite oxidizers in mixed communities.
Keywords
biological nitrogen removal, sensitivity analysis, Nitrososphaera gargensis, Nitrospira, observed yield, NITRITE-OXIDIZING BACTERIA, KINETIC CHARACTERIZATION, OXIDATION-KINETICS, MAINTENANCE ENERGY, NITRIFICATION, GROWTH, SUBSTRATE, CULTURE, SLUDGE, MODEL

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Chicago
Vandekerckhove, Tom, Samuel Bodé, Chaïm De Mulder, Siegfried Vlaeminck, and Nico Boon. 2019. “13C Incorporation as a Tool to Estimate Biomass Yields in Thermophilic and Mesophilic Nitrifying Communities.” Frontiers in Microbiology 10.
APA
Vandekerckhove, T., Bodé, S., De Mulder, C., Vlaeminck, S., & Boon, N. (2019). 13C Incorporation as a tool to estimate biomass yields in thermophilic and mesophilic nitrifying communities. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY, 10.
Vancouver
1.
Vandekerckhove T, Bodé S, De Mulder C, Vlaeminck S, Boon N. 13C Incorporation as a tool to estimate biomass yields in thermophilic and mesophilic nitrifying communities. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY. 2019;10.
MLA
Vandekerckhove, Tom et al. “13C Incorporation as a Tool to Estimate Biomass Yields in Thermophilic and Mesophilic Nitrifying Communities.” FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 10 (2019): n. pag. Print.
@article{8614810,
  abstract     = {Current methods determining biomass yield require sophisticated sensors for in situ measurements or multiple steady-state reactor runs. Determining the yield of specific groups of organisms in mixed cultures in a fast and easy manner remains challenging. This study describes a fast method to estimate the maximum biomass yield (Y-max ), based on C-13 incorporation during activity measurements. It was applied to mixed cultures containing ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) or archaea (AOA) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB), grown under mesophilic (15-28 degrees C) and thermophilic (50 degrees C) conditions. Using this method, no distinction could be made between AOB and AOA co-existing in a community. A slight overestimation of the nitrifier biomass due to C-13 redirection via SMP to heterotrophs could occur, meaning that this method determines the carbon fixation activity of the autotrophic microorganisms rather than the actual nitrifier biomass yield. Thermophilic AOA yields exceeded mesophilic AOB yields (0.22 vs. 0.06-0.11 g VSS g(-1) N), possibly linked to a more efficient pathway for CO(2 )incorporation. NOB thermophilically produced less biomass (0.025-0.028 vs. 0.048-0.051 g VSS g(-1) N), conceivably attributed to higher maintenance requirement, rendering less energy available for biomass synthesis. Interestingly, thermophilic nitrification yield was higher than its mesophilic counterpart, due to the dominance of AOA over AOB at higher temperatures. An instant temperature increase impacted the mesophilic AOB yield, corroborating the effect of maintenance requirement on production capacity. Model simulations of two realistic nitrification/denitrification plants were robust toward changing nitrifier yield in predicting effluent ammonium concentrations, whereas sludge composition was impacted. Summarized, a fast, precise and easily executable method was developed determining Y(max )of ammonia and nitrite oxidizers in mixed communities.},
  articleno    = {192},
  author       = {Vandekerckhove, Tom and Bod{\'e}, Samuel and De Mulder, Cha{\"i}m and Vlaeminck, Siegfried and Boon, Nico},
  issn         = {1664-302X},
  journal      = {FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {16},
  title        = {13C Incorporation as a tool to estimate biomass yields in thermophilic and mesophilic nitrifying communities},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00192},
  volume       = {10},
  year         = {2019},
}

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