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Comparative evaluation of ICP sample introduction systems to be used in the metabolite profiling of chlorine-containing pharmaceuticals via HPLC-ICP-MS

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Abstract
A systematic evaluation of four different 1CP sample introduction systems to be used in the context of metabolite profiling of chlorine-containing pharmaceuticals via HPLC-ICP-MS was carried out using diclofenac and its major metabolite, 4'-hydroxy-diclofenac, as model compounds. The strict requirements for GMP validation of chromatographic methods in the pharmaceutical industry were adhered to in this context. The final aim of this investigation is an extension of the applicability and validatability of HPLC-ICP-MS in the field of pharmaceutical R&D. Five different gradient programmes were tested while the baseline peak width (w(b)), peak capacity (P), USP tailing factor (A(s)) and USP signal-to-noise ratio (USP S/N) were determined as major indicators of the chromatographic performance and the values obtained were compared to the corresponding FDA recommendations (if applicable). Four different ICP-MS sample introductions systems were investigated involving two units typically working at higher flow rates (similar to 1.0 mL min(-1)) and another two systems working at lower flow rates (similar to 0.1 mL min(-1)). Optimal conditions with potential for applicability under GMP conditions were found at a mobile phase flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) by using a pneumatic micro-flow LC nebulizer mounted onto a Peltier-cooled cyclonic spray chamber cooled to -1 degrees C for sample introduction. Under these conditions, HPLC-ICP-MS provided a chromatographic performance similar to that of HPLC with UV detection. The peak shape (USP tailing factor = 1.1-1.4) was significantly improved compared to that obtained with the Peltier-cooled Scott-type spray chamber. Two alternative sample introduction systems - a POINT (R) and a High-Temperature Torch Integrated Sample Introduction System (hTISIS) - were also tested at a flow rate of 0.1 mL min(-1) using a chromatographic column with 1.0 mm ID. Although these systems allowed the peak shape to be improved compared to that obtained with the traditional Scott-type spray chamber, the limits of detection and of quantification achievable were strongly compromised due to the significantly lower sensitivity observed for Cl. In addition to a comparison of the aforementioned sample introduction systems, also the effect of spray chamber temperature was evaluated and it was demonstrated that proper temperature control plays an essential role in the optimization of HPLC-ICP-MS methods. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords
INDUCTIVELY-COUPLED PLASMA, PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY, ONLINE, ISOTOPE-DILUTION, MASS-SPECTROMETRY, SPECIATION ANALYSIS, GRADIENT, ELUTION, DRUG-METABOLISM, SPRAY CHAMBER, PEAK-CAPACITY, AES, HPLC coupled to ICP-tandem mass, spectrometry, Metabolite profiling, Speciation, Chromatographic method validation, GMP

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Chicago
Klencsar, Balazs, Carlos Sanchez, Lieve Balcaen, Jose Todoli, Frederic Lynen, and Frank Vanhaecke. 2018. “Comparative Evaluation of ICP Sample Introduction Systems to Be Used in the Metabolite Profiling of Chlorine-containing Pharmaceuticals via HPLC-ICP-MS.” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 153: 135–144.
APA
Klencsar, B., Sanchez, C., Balcaen, L., Todoli, J., Lynen, F., & Vanhaecke, F. (2018). Comparative evaluation of ICP sample introduction systems to be used in the metabolite profiling of chlorine-containing pharmaceuticals via HPLC-ICP-MS. JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ANALYSIS, 153, 135–144.
Vancouver
1.
Klencsar B, Sanchez C, Balcaen L, Todoli J, Lynen F, Vanhaecke F. Comparative evaluation of ICP sample introduction systems to be used in the metabolite profiling of chlorine-containing pharmaceuticals via HPLC-ICP-MS. JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ANALYSIS. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Bv; 2018;153:135–44.
MLA
Klencsar, Balazs et al. “Comparative Evaluation of ICP Sample Introduction Systems to Be Used in the Metabolite Profiling of Chlorine-containing Pharmaceuticals via HPLC-ICP-MS.” JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ANALYSIS 153 (2018): 135–144. Print.
@article{8614287,
  abstract     = {A systematic evaluation of four different 1CP sample introduction systems to be used in the context of metabolite profiling of chlorine-containing pharmaceuticals via HPLC-ICP-MS was carried out using diclofenac and its major metabolite, 4'-hydroxy-diclofenac, as model compounds. The strict requirements for GMP validation of chromatographic methods in the pharmaceutical industry were adhered to in this context. The final aim of this investigation is an extension of the applicability and validatability of HPLC-ICP-MS in the field of pharmaceutical R\&D. Five different gradient programmes were tested while the baseline peak width (w(b)), peak capacity (P), USP tailing factor (A(s)) and USP signal-to-noise ratio (USP S/N) were determined as major indicators of the chromatographic performance and the values obtained were compared to the corresponding FDA recommendations (if applicable). Four different ICP-MS sample introductions systems were investigated involving two units typically working at higher flow rates (similar to 1.0 mL min(-1)) and another two systems working at lower flow rates (similar to 0.1 mL min(-1)). Optimal conditions with potential for applicability under GMP conditions were found at a mobile phase flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) by using a pneumatic micro-flow LC nebulizer mounted onto a Peltier-cooled cyclonic spray chamber cooled to -1 degrees C for sample introduction. Under these conditions, HPLC-ICP-MS provided a chromatographic performance similar to that of HPLC with UV detection. The peak shape (USP tailing factor = 1.1-1.4) was significantly improved compared to that obtained with the Peltier-cooled Scott-type spray chamber. Two alternative sample introduction systems - a POINT (R) and a High-Temperature Torch Integrated Sample Introduction System (hTISIS) - were also tested at a flow rate of 0.1 mL min(-1) using a chromatographic column with 1.0 mm ID. Although these systems allowed the peak shape to be improved compared to that obtained with the traditional Scott-type spray chamber, the limits of detection and of quantification achievable were strongly compromised due to the significantly lower sensitivity observed for Cl. In addition to a comparison of the aforementioned sample introduction systems, also the effect of spray chamber temperature was evaluated and it was demonstrated that proper temperature control plays an essential role in the optimization of HPLC-ICP-MS methods. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
  author       = {Klencsar, Balazs and Sanchez, Carlos and Balcaen, Lieve and Todoli, Jose and Lynen, Frederic and Vanhaecke, Frank},
  issn         = {0731-7085},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ANALYSIS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {135--144},
  publisher    = {Elsevier Science Bv},
  title        = {Comparative evaluation of ICP sample introduction systems to be used in the metabolite profiling of chlorine-containing pharmaceuticals via HPLC-ICP-MS},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2018.02.031},
  volume       = {153},
  year         = {2018},
}

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