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Sweet immunity : inulin boosts resistance of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) against grey mold (Botrytis cinerea) in an ethylene-dependent manner

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Abstract
The concept of Sweet Immunity postulates that sugar metabolism and signaling influence plant immune networks. In this study, we tested the potential of commercially available inulin-type fructans to limit disease symptoms caused by Botrytis cinerea in lettuce. Spraying mature lettuce leaves, with inulin-type fructans derived from burdock or chicory was as effective in reducing grey mold disease symptoms caused by Botrytis cinerea as spraying with oligogalacturonides (OGs). OGs are well-known defense elicitors in several plant species. Spraying with inulin and OGs induced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and levels further increased upon pathogen infection. Inulin and OGs were no longer able to limit Botrytis infection when plants were treated with the ethylene signaling inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), indicating that a functional ethylene signaling pathway is needed for the enhanced defense response. Soluble sugars accumulated in leaves primed with OGs, while 1-MCP treatment had an overall negative effect on the sucrose pool. Accumulation of -aminobutyric acid (GABA), a stress-associated non-proteinogenic amino acid and possible signaling compound, was observed in inulin-treated samples after infection and negatively affected by the 1-MCP treatment. We have demonstrated for the first time that commercially available inulin-type fructans and OGs can improve the defensive capacity of lettuce, an economically important species. We discuss our results in the context of a possible recognition of fructans as Damage or Microbe Associated Molecular Patterns.
Keywords
sweet immunity, Botrytis cinerea, fructan, oligogalacturonides, lettuce, ethylene, 1-MCP, GABA, PLANT DEFENSE RESPONSES, OXIDATIVE BURST, INVERTASE GENE, SALICYLIC-ACID, EXTRACELLULAR INVERTASE, FRUCTAN EXOHYDROLASES, PROLINE ACCUMULATION, FREEZING TOLERANCE, HYDROGEN-PEROXIDE, AGAVE-TEQUILANA

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MLA
Tarkowski, Lukasz Pawel et al. “Sweet Immunity : Inulin Boosts Resistance of Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa) Against Grey Mold (Botrytis Cinerea) in an Ethylene-dependent Manner.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES 20.5 (2019): n. pag. Print.
APA
Tarkowski, L. P., Van de Poel, B., Höfte, M., & Van den Ende, W. (2019). Sweet immunity : inulin boosts resistance of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) against grey mold (Botrytis cinerea) in an ethylene-dependent manner. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, 20(5).
Chicago author-date
Tarkowski, Lukasz Pawel, Bram Van de Poel, Monica Höfte, and Wim Van den Ende. 2019. “Sweet Immunity : Inulin Boosts Resistance of Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa) Against Grey Mold (Botrytis Cinerea) in an Ethylene-dependent Manner.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20 (5).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Tarkowski, Lukasz Pawel, Bram Van de Poel, Monica Höfte, and Wim Van den Ende. 2019. “Sweet Immunity : Inulin Boosts Resistance of Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa) Against Grey Mold (Botrytis Cinerea) in an Ethylene-dependent Manner.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20 (5).
Vancouver
1.
Tarkowski LP, Van de Poel B, Höfte M, Van den Ende W. Sweet immunity : inulin boosts resistance of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) against grey mold (Botrytis cinerea) in an ethylene-dependent manner. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. 2019;20(5).
IEEE
[1]
L. P. Tarkowski, B. Van de Poel, M. Höfte, and W. Van den Ende, “Sweet immunity : inulin boosts resistance of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) against grey mold (Botrytis cinerea) in an ethylene-dependent manner,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, vol. 20, no. 5, 2019.
@article{8613808,
  abstract     = {The concept of Sweet Immunity postulates that sugar metabolism and signaling influence plant immune networks. In this study, we tested the potential of commercially available inulin-type fructans to limit disease symptoms caused by Botrytis cinerea in lettuce. Spraying mature lettuce leaves, with inulin-type fructans derived from burdock or chicory was as effective in reducing grey mold disease symptoms caused by Botrytis cinerea as spraying with oligogalacturonides (OGs). OGs are well-known defense elicitors in several plant species. Spraying with inulin and OGs induced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and levels further increased upon pathogen infection. Inulin and OGs were no longer able to limit Botrytis infection when plants were treated with the ethylene signaling inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), indicating that a functional ethylene signaling pathway is needed for the enhanced defense response. Soluble sugars accumulated in leaves primed with OGs, while 1-MCP treatment had an overall negative effect on the sucrose pool. Accumulation of -aminobutyric acid (GABA), a stress-associated non-proteinogenic amino acid and possible signaling compound, was observed in inulin-treated samples after infection and negatively affected by the 1-MCP treatment. We have demonstrated for the first time that commercially available inulin-type fructans and OGs can improve the defensive capacity of lettuce, an economically important species. We discuss our results in the context of a possible recognition of fructans as Damage or Microbe Associated Molecular Patterns.},
  articleno    = {1052},
  author       = {Tarkowski, Lukasz Pawel and Van de Poel, Bram and Höfte, Monica and Van den Ende, Wim},
  issn         = {1422-0067},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES},
  keywords     = {sweet immunity,Botrytis cinerea,fructan,oligogalacturonides,lettuce,ethylene,1-MCP,GABA,PLANT DEFENSE RESPONSES,OXIDATIVE BURST,INVERTASE GENE,SALICYLIC-ACID,EXTRACELLULAR INVERTASE,FRUCTAN EXOHYDROLASES,PROLINE ACCUMULATION,FREEZING TOLERANCE,HYDROGEN-PEROXIDE,AGAVE-TEQUILANA},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {22},
  title        = {Sweet immunity : inulin boosts resistance of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) against grey mold (Botrytis cinerea) in an ethylene-dependent manner},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051052},
  volume       = {20},
  year         = {2019},
}

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