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A damping circadian clock drives weak oscillations in metabolism and locomotor activity of aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum)

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Abstract
Timing seasonal events, like reproduction or diapause, is crucial for the survival of many species. Global change causes phenologies worldwide to shift, which requires a mechanistic explanation of seasonal time measurement. Day length (photoperiod) is a reliable indicator of winter arrival, but it remains unclear how exactly species measure day length. A reference for time of day could be provided by a circadian clock, by an hourglass clock, or, as some newer models suggest, by a damped circadian clock. However, damping of clock outputs has so far been rarely observed. To study putative clock outputs of Acyrthosiphon pisum aphids, we raised individual nymphs on coloured artificial diet, and measured rhythms in metabolic activity in light-dark illumination cycles of 16: 08 hours (LD) and constant conditions (DD). In addition, we kept individuals in a novel monitoring setup and measured locomotor activity. We found that A. pisum is day-active in LD, potentially with a bimodal distribution. In constant darkness rhythmicity of locomotor behaviour persisted in some individuals, but patterns were mostly complex with several predominant periods. Metabolic activity, on the other hand, damped quickly. A damped circadian clock, potentially driven by multiple oscillator populations, is the most likely explanation of our results.
Keywords
PHOTOPERIODIC TIME MEASUREMENT, DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER, HONEYDEW EXCRETION, HOUR-GLASS, PEA APHID, ORGANIZATION, HOMOPTERA, RHYTHMS, SEX, TEMPERATURE

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MLA
Beer, Katharina et al. “A Damping Circadian Clock Drives Weak Oscillations in Metabolism and Locomotor Activity of Aphids (Acyrthosiphon Pisum).” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 7 (2017): n. pag. Print.
APA
Beer, K., Joschinski, J., Arrazola Sastre, A., Krauss, J., & Helfrich-Förster, C. (2017). A damping circadian clock drives weak oscillations in metabolism and locomotor activity of aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum). SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 7.
Chicago author-date
Beer, Katharina, Jens Joschinski, Alazne Arrazola Sastre, Jochen Krauss, and Charlotte Helfrich-Förster. 2017. “A Damping Circadian Clock Drives Weak Oscillations in Metabolism and Locomotor Activity of Aphids (Acyrthosiphon Pisum).” Scientific Reports 7.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Beer, Katharina, Jens Joschinski, Alazne Arrazola Sastre, Jochen Krauss, and Charlotte Helfrich-Förster. 2017. “A Damping Circadian Clock Drives Weak Oscillations in Metabolism and Locomotor Activity of Aphids (Acyrthosiphon Pisum).” Scientific Reports 7.
Vancouver
1.
Beer K, Joschinski J, Arrazola Sastre A, Krauss J, Helfrich-Förster C. A damping circadian clock drives weak oscillations in metabolism and locomotor activity of aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum). SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. 2017;7.
IEEE
[1]
K. Beer, J. Joschinski, A. Arrazola Sastre, J. Krauss, and C. Helfrich-Förster, “A damping circadian clock drives weak oscillations in metabolism and locomotor activity of aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum),” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 7, 2017.
@article{8612822,
  abstract     = {Timing seasonal events, like reproduction or diapause, is crucial for the survival of many species. Global change causes phenologies worldwide to shift, which requires a mechanistic explanation of seasonal time measurement. Day length (photoperiod) is a reliable indicator of winter arrival, but it remains unclear how exactly species measure day length. A reference for time of day could be provided by a circadian clock, by an hourglass clock, or, as some newer models suggest, by a damped circadian clock. However, damping of clock outputs has so far been rarely observed. To study putative clock outputs of Acyrthosiphon pisum aphids, we raised individual nymphs on coloured artificial diet, and measured rhythms in metabolic activity in light-dark illumination cycles of 16: 08 hours (LD) and constant conditions (DD). In addition, we kept individuals in a novel monitoring setup and measured locomotor activity. We found that A. pisum is day-active in LD, potentially with a bimodal distribution. In constant darkness rhythmicity of locomotor behaviour persisted in some individuals, but patterns were mostly complex with several predominant periods. Metabolic activity, on the other hand, damped quickly. A damped circadian clock, potentially driven by multiple oscillator populations, is the most likely explanation of our results.},
  articleno    = {14906},
  author       = {Beer, Katharina and Joschinski, Jens and Arrazola Sastre, Alazne and Krauss, Jochen and Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte},
  issn         = {2045-2322},
  journal      = {SCIENTIFIC REPORTS},
  keywords     = {PHOTOPERIODIC TIME MEASUREMENT,DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER,HONEYDEW EXCRETION,HOUR-GLASS,PEA APHID,ORGANIZATION,HOMOPTERA,RHYTHMS,SEX,TEMPERATURE},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {9},
  title        = {A damping circadian clock drives weak oscillations in metabolism and locomotor activity of aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-15014-3},
  volume       = {7},
  year         = {2017},
}

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