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Exploration of gray matter correlates of cognitive training benefit in adolescents with chronic traumatic brain injury

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Abstract
Sustaining a traumatic brain injury (FBI) during adolescence has a profound effect on brain development and can result in persistent executive functioning deficits in daily life. Cognitive recovery from pediatric-TBI relies on the potential of neuroplasticity, which can be fostered by restorative training-programs. However the structural mechanisms underlying cognitive recovery in the immature brain are poorly understood. This study investigated gray matter plasticity following 2 months of cognitive training in young patients with TBI. Sixteen adolescents in the chronic stage of moderate-severe-TBI (9 male, mean age = 15y8m +/- 1y7m) were enrolled in a cognitive computerized training program for 8 weeks (5 times/week, 40 min/session). Pre-and post-intervention, and 6 months after completion of the training, participants underwent a comprehensive neurocognitive test-battery and anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans. We selected 9 cortical-subcortical Regions-Of-Interest associated with Executive Functioning (EF-ROIs) and 3 control regions from the Desikan-Killiany atlas. Baseline analyses showed significant decreased gray matter density in the superior frontal gyri p = 0.033, superior parietal gyri p = 0.015 and thalamus p = 0.006 in adolescents with TBI compared to age and gender matched controls. Linear mixed model analyses of longitudinal volumetric data of the EF-ROI revealed no strong evidence of training-related changes in the group with TBI. However, compared to the change over time in the control regions between post-intervention and 6 months follow-up, the change in the EF-ROIs showed a significant difference. Exploratory analyses revealed a negative correlation between the change on the Digit Symbol Substitution test and the change in volume of the putamen (r = - 0.596, p = 0.015). This preliminary study contributes to the insights of training-related plasticity mechanisms after pediatric-TBI.
Keywords
Pediatric traumatic brain injury, Cognitive rehabilitation, Gray matter, Neural plasticity, Executive function, Linear mixed model analyses, HUMAN CEREBRAL-CORTEX, BASAL GANGLIA VOLUME, FALSE DISCOVERY RATE, EXECUTIVE FUNCTION, CORTICAL THICKNESS, LONGITUDINAL CHANGES, INTRACRANIAL VOLUME, SUBCORTICAL VOLUMES, PARENT RATINGS, FAMILY INCOME

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MLA
Vander Linden, Catharine, et al. “Exploration of Gray Matter Correlates of Cognitive Training Benefit in Adolescents with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury.” NEUROIMAGE-CLINICAL, vol. 23, 2019.
APA
Vander Linden, C., Verhelst, H., Deschepper, E., Vingerhoets, G., Deblaere, K., & Caeyenberghs, K. (2019). Exploration of gray matter correlates of cognitive training benefit in adolescents with chronic traumatic brain injury. NEUROIMAGE-CLINICAL, 23.
Chicago author-date
Vander Linden, Catharine, Helena Verhelst, Ellen Deschepper, Guy Vingerhoets, Karel Deblaere, and Karen Caeyenberghs. 2019. “Exploration of Gray Matter Correlates of Cognitive Training Benefit in Adolescents with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury.” NEUROIMAGE-CLINICAL 23.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Vander Linden, Catharine, Helena Verhelst, Ellen Deschepper, Guy Vingerhoets, Karel Deblaere, and Karen Caeyenberghs. 2019. “Exploration of Gray Matter Correlates of Cognitive Training Benefit in Adolescents with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury.” NEUROIMAGE-CLINICAL 23.
Vancouver
1.
Vander Linden C, Verhelst H, Deschepper E, Vingerhoets G, Deblaere K, Caeyenberghs K. Exploration of gray matter correlates of cognitive training benefit in adolescents with chronic traumatic brain injury. NEUROIMAGE-CLINICAL. 2019;23.
IEEE
[1]
C. Vander Linden, H. Verhelst, E. Deschepper, G. Vingerhoets, K. Deblaere, and K. Caeyenberghs, “Exploration of gray matter correlates of cognitive training benefit in adolescents with chronic traumatic brain injury,” NEUROIMAGE-CLINICAL, vol. 23, 2019.
@article{8612242,
  abstract     = {Sustaining a traumatic brain injury (FBI) during adolescence has a profound effect on brain development and can result in persistent executive functioning deficits in daily life. Cognitive recovery from pediatric-TBI relies on the potential of neuroplasticity, which can be fostered by restorative training-programs. However the structural mechanisms underlying cognitive recovery in the immature brain are poorly understood. This study investigated gray matter plasticity following 2 months of cognitive training in young patients with TBI. Sixteen adolescents in the chronic stage of moderate-severe-TBI (9 male, mean age = 15y8m +/- 1y7m) were enrolled in a cognitive computerized training program for 8 weeks (5 times/week, 40 min/session). Pre-and post-intervention, and 6 months after completion of the training, participants underwent a comprehensive neurocognitive test-battery and anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans. We selected 9 cortical-subcortical Regions-Of-Interest associated with Executive Functioning (EF-ROIs) and 3 control regions from the Desikan-Killiany atlas. Baseline analyses showed significant decreased gray matter density in the superior frontal gyri p = 0.033, superior parietal gyri p = 0.015 and thalamus p = 0.006 in adolescents with TBI compared to age and gender matched controls. Linear mixed model analyses of longitudinal volumetric data of the EF-ROI revealed no strong evidence of training-related changes in the group with TBI. However, compared to the change over time in the control regions between post-intervention and 6 months follow-up, the change in the EF-ROIs showed a significant difference. Exploratory analyses revealed a negative correlation between the change on the Digit Symbol Substitution test and the change in volume of the putamen (r = - 0.596, p = 0.015). This preliminary study contributes to the insights of training-related plasticity mechanisms after pediatric-TBI.},
  articleno    = {101827},
  author       = {Vander Linden, Catharine and Verhelst, Helena and Deschepper, Ellen and Vingerhoets, Guy and Deblaere, Karel and Caeyenberghs, Karen},
  issn         = {2213-1582},
  journal      = {NEUROIMAGE-CLINICAL},
  keywords     = {Pediatric traumatic brain injury,Cognitive rehabilitation,Gray matter,Neural plasticity,Executive function,Linear mixed model analyses,HUMAN CEREBRAL-CORTEX,BASAL GANGLIA VOLUME,FALSE DISCOVERY RATE,EXECUTIVE FUNCTION,CORTICAL THICKNESS,LONGITUDINAL CHANGES,INTRACRANIAL VOLUME,SUBCORTICAL VOLUMES,PARENT RATINGS,FAMILY INCOME},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {10},
  title        = {Exploration of gray matter correlates of cognitive training benefit in adolescents with chronic traumatic brain injury},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101827},
  volume       = {23},
  year         = {2019},
}

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