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Activity-induced increase in Achilles tendon blood flow is age and sex dependent

Evi Wezenbeek (UGent) , Dirk De Clercq (UGent) , Nele Mahieu (UGent) , Tine Willems (UGent) and Erik Witvrouw (UGent)
(2018) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE. 46(11). p.2678-2686
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Organization
Abstract
Background: Previous research of a young adult population identified a lower increase in Achilles tendon blood flow immediately after a running activity as a significant predictor for the development of Achilles tendinopathy (AT). Furthermore, advancing age is often mentioned as a risk factor for the development of AT, and the highest incidence for AT is reported to occur in middle-aged recreational male athletes. Purpose: To investigate the effect of age, sex, and type of physical activity on the increase in Achilles tendon blood flow. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Blood flow measurements of 33 subjects aged 18 to 25 years and 30 subjects aged 40 to 55 years were obtained before and after 4 physical activities performed in randomized order: running, cycling, dynamic stretching, and rope skipping. Blood flow measurements of the Achilles tendon were performed before, immediately after, 5 minutes after, and 10 minutes after the physical activities. The effect of age, sex, and physical activities on the increase in blood flow was investigated with linear mixed models. Results: The results of this study identified that running, rope skipping, and cycling resulted in a significant increase in tendon blood flow (P <=.001), whereas stretching did not. Prominent was the finding that the increase in blood flow after activity was significantly lower in the older population as compared with the younger population (P<.001). Furthermore, male participants in the older group showed a significantly lower increase in tendon blood flow than did their female counterparts (P=.019). Conclusion: This study identified that sex and age significantly influence the increase in blood flow after activity, possibly explaining the increased risk for AT among middle-aged recreational athletes.
Keywords
Achilles tendon, blood flow, physical activity, sex, age, SKELETAL-MUSCLE, RAPID VASODILATION, EXERCISE, TENDINOPATHY, HUMANS, ANGIOGENESIS, PATHOGENESIS, EFFICIENCY, ONSET

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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Wezenbeek, Evi et al. “Activity-induced Increase in Achilles Tendon Blood Flow Is Age and Sex Dependent.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE 46.11 (2018): 2678–2686. Print.
APA
Wezenbeek, E., De Clercq, D., Mahieu, N., Willems, T., & Witvrouw, E. (2018). Activity-induced increase in Achilles tendon blood flow is age and sex dependent. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE, 46(11), 2678–2686.
Chicago author-date
Wezenbeek, Evi, Dirk De Clercq, Nele Mahieu, Tine Willems, and Erik Witvrouw. 2018. “Activity-induced Increase in Achilles Tendon Blood Flow Is Age and Sex Dependent.” American Journal of Sports Medicine 46 (11): 2678–2686.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Wezenbeek, Evi, Dirk De Clercq, Nele Mahieu, Tine Willems, and Erik Witvrouw. 2018. “Activity-induced Increase in Achilles Tendon Blood Flow Is Age and Sex Dependent.” American Journal of Sports Medicine 46 (11): 2678–2686.
Vancouver
1.
Wezenbeek E, De Clercq D, Mahieu N, Willems T, Witvrouw E. Activity-induced increase in Achilles tendon blood flow is age and sex dependent. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE. 2018;46(11):2678–86.
IEEE
[1]
E. Wezenbeek, D. De Clercq, N. Mahieu, T. Willems, and E. Witvrouw, “Activity-induced increase in Achilles tendon blood flow is age and sex dependent,” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 2678–2686, 2018.
@article{8612193,
  abstract     = {Background: Previous research of a young adult population identified a lower increase in Achilles tendon blood flow immediately after a running activity as a significant predictor for the development of Achilles tendinopathy (AT). Furthermore, advancing age is often mentioned as a risk factor for the development of AT, and the highest incidence for AT is reported to occur in middle-aged recreational male athletes. 
Purpose: To investigate the effect of age, sex, and type of physical activity on the increase in Achilles tendon blood flow. 
Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. 
Methods: Blood flow measurements of 33 subjects aged 18 to 25 years and 30 subjects aged 40 to 55 years were obtained before and after 4 physical activities performed in randomized order: running, cycling, dynamic stretching, and rope skipping. Blood flow measurements of the Achilles tendon were performed before, immediately after, 5 minutes after, and 10 minutes after the physical activities. The effect of age, sex, and physical activities on the increase in blood flow was investigated with linear mixed models. 
Results: The results of this study identified that running, rope skipping, and cycling resulted in a significant increase in tendon blood flow (P <=.001), whereas stretching did not. Prominent was the finding that the increase in blood flow after activity was significantly lower in the older population as compared with the younger population (P<.001). Furthermore, male participants in the older group showed a significantly lower increase in tendon blood flow than did their female counterparts (P=.019). 
Conclusion: This study identified that sex and age significantly influence the increase in blood flow after activity, possibly explaining the increased risk for AT among middle-aged recreational athletes.},
  author       = {Wezenbeek, Evi and De Clercq, Dirk and Mahieu, Nele and Willems, Tine and Witvrouw, Erik},
  issn         = {0363-5465},
  journal      = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE},
  keywords     = {Achilles tendon,blood flow,physical activity,sex,age,SKELETAL-MUSCLE,RAPID VASODILATION,EXERCISE,TENDINOPATHY,HUMANS,ANGIOGENESIS,PATHOGENESIS,EFFICIENCY,ONSET},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {2678--2686},
  title        = {Activity-induced increase in Achilles tendon blood flow is age and sex dependent},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546518786259},
  volume       = {46},
  year         = {2018},
}

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