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Randomized field trial on the effects of body weight and short transport on stress and immune variables in 2‐ to 4‐week‐old dairy calves

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Abstract
BACKGROUND: Whether underweight calves respond differently to transport stress, enhancing their disease risk, is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of low body weight and transport stress on immune variables. ANIMALS: Twenty-one 2- to 4-week-old male Holstein calves, housed on a commercial farm. METHODS: Randomized clinical trial. Full factorial design with 4 treatment groups: low body weight (≤46 kg)/no transport (LOWCON); low body weight/transport (LOWTRANS); normal body weight (>46 kg)/no transport (NORMCON), and normal body weight/transport (NORMTRANS). Transport duration was 2 hours. RESULTS: Transport significantly increased serum cortisol concentration (77.8 μg/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI], 37.8-131.6; P < .001), interleukin (IL)-17A (344.9 pg/mL; 95% CI, 32.2-556.5; P = .04), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (218.2 pg/mL; 95% CI, 32.5-368.3; P = .03) production after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Body weight did not affect any of the studied variables. However, the interaction of transport and body weight was significant. LOWTRANS calves showed increased monocyte count (2.0 × 109 /L; 95% CI, 0.6-4.2; P < .05) and interleukin IL-17A production (106.0 pg/mL; 95% CI, 4.2-306.9; P = .03) compared to normal weight calves and increased TNF-α production (275.6 pg/mL; 95% CI, 2.6-463.0; P = .02) compared to LOWCON calves in unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after transport. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: These findings contribute to our understanding of increased disease susceptibility of underweight calves when transported. Gamma globulin concentration was identified as important interfering factor in studies on immune variables in neonatal calves.

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MLA
Masmeijer, Christina et al. “Randomized Field Trial on the Effects of Body Weight and Short Transport on Stress and Immune Variables in 2‐ to 4‐week‐old Dairy Calves.” JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE 33.3 (2019): 1514–1529. Print.
APA
Masmeijer, Christina, Devriendt, B., Rogge, T., van Leenen, K., De Cremer, L., Van Ranst, B., Deprez, P., et al. (2019). Randomized field trial on the effects of body weight and short transport on stress and immune variables in 2‐ to 4‐week‐old dairy calves. JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE, 33(3), 1514–1529.
Chicago author-date
Masmeijer, Christina, Bert Devriendt, Tina Rogge, Katharina van Leenen, Lieze De Cremer, Bonny Van Ranst, Piet Deprez, Eric Cox, and Bart Pardon. 2019. “Randomized Field Trial on the Effects of Body Weight and Short Transport on Stress and Immune Variables in 2‐ to 4‐week‐old Dairy Calves.” Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 33 (3): 1514–1529.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Masmeijer, Christina, Bert Devriendt, Tina Rogge, Katharina van Leenen, Lieze De Cremer, Bonny Van Ranst, Piet Deprez, Eric Cox, and Bart Pardon. 2019. “Randomized Field Trial on the Effects of Body Weight and Short Transport on Stress and Immune Variables in 2‐ to 4‐week‐old Dairy Calves.” Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 33 (3): 1514–1529.
Vancouver
1.
Masmeijer C, Devriendt B, Rogge T, van Leenen K, De Cremer L, Van Ranst B, et al. Randomized field trial on the effects of body weight and short transport on stress and immune variables in 2‐ to 4‐week‐old dairy calves. JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE. 2019;33(3):1514–29.
IEEE
[1]
C. Masmeijer et al., “Randomized field trial on the effects of body weight and short transport on stress and immune variables in 2‐ to 4‐week‐old dairy calves,” JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 1514–1529, 2019.
@article{8612089,
  abstract     = {BACKGROUND: Whether underweight calves respond differently to transport stress, enhancing their disease risk, is currently unknown.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of low body weight and transport stress on immune variables.
ANIMALS: Twenty-one 2- to 4-week-old male Holstein calves, housed on a commercial farm.
METHODS: Randomized clinical trial. Full factorial design with 4 treatment groups: low body weight (≤46 kg)/no transport (LOWCON); low body weight/transport (LOWTRANS); normal body weight (>46 kg)/no transport (NORMCON), and normal body weight/transport (NORMTRANS). Transport duration was 2 hours.
RESULTS: Transport significantly increased serum cortisol concentration (77.8 μg/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI], 37.8-131.6; P < .001), interleukin (IL)-17A (344.9 pg/mL; 95% CI, 32.2-556.5; P = .04), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (218.2 pg/mL; 95% CI, 32.5-368.3; P = .03) production after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Body weight did not affect any of the studied variables. However, the interaction of transport and body weight was significant. LOWTRANS calves showed increased monocyte count (2.0 × 109 /L; 95% CI, 0.6-4.2; P < .05) and interleukin IL-17A production (106.0 pg/mL; 95% CI, 4.2-306.9; P = .03) compared to normal weight calves and increased TNF-α production (275.6 pg/mL; 95% CI, 2.6-463.0; P = .02) compared to LOWCON calves in unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after transport.
CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: These findings contribute to our understanding of increased disease susceptibility of underweight calves when transported. Gamma globulin concentration was identified as important interfering factor in studies on immune variables in neonatal calves.},
  author       = {Masmeijer, Christina and Devriendt, Bert and Rogge, Tina and van Leenen, Katharina and De Cremer, Lieze and Van Ranst, Bonny and Deprez, Piet and Cox, Eric and Pardon, Bart},
  issn         = {0891-6640},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {1514--1529},
  title        = {Randomized field trial on the effects of body weight and short transport on stress and immune variables in 2‐ to 4‐week‐old dairy calves},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15482},
  volume       = {33},
  year         = {2019},
}

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