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Noncontact Infrared-Mediated Heat Transfer During Continuous Freeze-Drying of Unit Doses

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Abstract
Recently, an innovative continuous freeze-drying concept for unit doses was proposed, based on spinning the vials during freezing. An efficient heat transfer during drying is essential to continuously process these spin frozen vials. Therefore, the applicability of noncontact infrared (IR) radiation was examined. The impact of several process and formulation variables on the mass of sublimed ice after 15 min of primary drying (i.e., sublimation rate) and the total drying time was examined. Two experimental designs were performed in which electrical power to the IR heaters, distance between the IR heaters and the spin frozen vial, chamber pressure, product layer thickness, and 5 model formulations were included as factors. A near-infrared spectroscopy method was developed to determine the end point of primary and secondary drying. The sublimation rate was mainly influenced by the electrical power to the IR heaters and the distance between the IR heaters and the vial. The layer thickness had the largest effect on total drying time. The chamber pressure and the 5 model formulations had no significant impact on sublimation rate and total drying time, respectively. This study shows that IR radiation is suitable to provide the energy during the continuous processing of spin frozen vials.
Keywords
freeze-drying/lyophilization, near-infrared spectroscopy, principal component analysis, factorial design, process analytical technology

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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan, Laurens De Meyer, Jos Corver, Chris Vervaet, and Thomas De Beer. 2017. “Noncontact Infrared-Mediated Heat Transfer During Continuous Freeze-Drying of Unit Doses.” Ed. Pieter-Jan Van Bockstal. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 106 (1): 71–82.
APA
Van Bockstal, P.-J., De Meyer, L., Corver, J., Vervaet, C., & De Beer, T. (2017). Noncontact Infrared-Mediated Heat Transfer During Continuous Freeze-Drying of Unit Doses. (P.-J. Van Bockstal, Ed.)Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 106(1), 71–82.
Vancouver
1.
Van Bockstal P-J, De Meyer L, Corver J, Vervaet C, De Beer T. Noncontact Infrared-Mediated Heat Transfer During Continuous Freeze-Drying of Unit Doses. Van Bockstal P-J, editor. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Elsevier BV; 2017;106(1):71–82.
MLA
Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan et al. “Noncontact Infrared-Mediated Heat Transfer During Continuous Freeze-Drying of Unit Doses.” Ed. Pieter-Jan Van Bockstal. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 106.1 (2017): 71–82. Print.
@article{8611040,
  abstract     = {Recently, an innovative continuous freeze-drying concept for unit doses was proposed, based on spinning the vials during freezing. An efficient heat transfer during drying is essential to continuously process these spin frozen vials. Therefore, the applicability of noncontact infrared (IR) radiation was examined. The impact of several process and formulation variables on the mass of sublimed ice after 15 min of primary drying (i.e., sublimation rate) and the total drying time was examined. Two experimental designs were performed in which electrical power to the IR heaters, distance between the IR heaters and the spin frozen vial, chamber pressure, product layer thickness, and 5 model formulations were included as factors. A near-infrared spectroscopy method was developed to determine the end point of primary and secondary drying. The sublimation rate was mainly influenced by the electrical power to the IR heaters and the distance between the IR heaters and the vial. The layer thickness had the largest effect on total drying time. The chamber pressure and the 5 model formulations had no significant impact on sublimation rate and total drying time, respectively. This study shows that IR radiation is suitable to provide the energy during the continuous processing of spin frozen vials.},
  author       = {Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan and De Meyer, Laurens and Corver, Jos and Vervaet, Chris and De Beer, Thomas},
  editor       = {Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan},
  issn         = {0022-3549},
  journal      = {Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {71--82},
  publisher    = {Elsevier BV},
  title        = {Noncontact Infrared-Mediated Heat Transfer During Continuous Freeze-Drying of Unit Doses},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2016.05.003},
  volume       = {106},
  year         = {2017},
}

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