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Effects of long-term methylphenidate use on growth and blood pressure: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)

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Abstract
Background: Concerns have been raised over the safety of methylphenidate (MPH), with regard to adverse effects on growth and blood pressure. Our study investigates whether, and to what extent, methylphenidate use in boys with ADHD is associated with having low body mass index (BMI), having low height, and increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Methods: Data used for this study stem from the German KiGGS dataset. Three different groups of boys aged 6-15 years were included in the analysis: ADHD patients who used MPH for less than 12 months; ADHD patients who used MPH for 12 months or more; and ADHD patients without current MPH treatment. Each of these three groups was compared to a non-ADHD control group regarding low weight (BMI <= 3rd percentile), low height (<= 3rd percentile) and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure. For growth outcomes, boys were categorized according to age (< 11 years/>= 11 years, to account for pubertal maturation). Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to test for associations. Results: 4244 boys were included in the study; MPH < 12 months: n = 65 (n = 36 < 11 years), MPH >= 12 months: n = 53 (n = 22 < 11 years), ADHD controls: n = 320 (n = 132 < 11 years), non-ADHD controls: n = 3806 (n = 2003 < 11 years). Pre-pubertal boys with MPH use less than 12 months and pubertal/postpubertal boys with MPH use of 12 months or greater were significantly more likely to have a BMI <= 3rd percentile compared to non-ADHD controls. Boys from the ADHD control group were significantly less likely to have a raised systolic blood pressure compared to non-ADHD controls. Beyond that, no significant between group differences were observed for any other growth and BP parameter. Conclusion: The analyses of the KiGGS dataset showed that MPH use in boys with ADHD is associated with low BMI. However, this effect was only observed in certain groups. Furthermore, our analysis was unable to confirm that MPH use is also associated with low height (<= 3rd percentile) and changes in blood pressure.
Keywords
DEFICIT-HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY, DISORDER, SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS, STIMULANT MEDICATION, ADHD, MEDICATIONS, RISK, PREVALENCE, HEIGHT, MANAGEMENT, ADULTS, ADHD, Methylphenidate, Safety, Growth, BMI, Blood pressure

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MLA
McCarthy, Suzanne et al. “Effects of Long-term Methylphenidate Use on Growth and Blood Pressure: Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS).” BMC PSYCHIATRY 18 (2018): n. pag. Print.
APA
McCarthy, S., Neubert, A., Man, K. K. C., Banaschewski, T., Buitelaar, J., Carucci, S., Coghill, D., et al. (2018). Effects of long-term methylphenidate use on growth and blood pressure: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). BMC PSYCHIATRY, 18.
Chicago author-date
McCarthy, Suzanne, Antje Neubert, Kenneth K. C. Man, Tobias Banaschewski, Jan Buitelaar, Sara Carucci, David Coghill, et al. 2018. “Effects of Long-term Methylphenidate Use on Growth and Blood Pressure: Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS).” Bmc Psychiatry 18.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
McCarthy, Suzanne, Antje Neubert, Kenneth K. C. Man, Tobias Banaschewski, Jan Buitelaar, Sara Carucci, David Coghill, Marina Danckaerts, Bruno Falissard, Peter Garas, Alexander Haege, Chris Hollis, Sarah Inglis, Hanna Kovshoff, Elizabeth Liddle, Konstantin Mechler, Peter Nagy, Eric Rosenthal, Robert Schlack, Edmund Barke, Alessandro Zuddas, and Ian C. K. Wong. 2018. “Effects of Long-term Methylphenidate Use on Growth and Blood Pressure: Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS).” Bmc Psychiatry 18.
Vancouver
1.
McCarthy S, Neubert A, Man KKC, Banaschewski T, Buitelaar J, Carucci S, et al. Effects of long-term methylphenidate use on growth and blood pressure: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). BMC PSYCHIATRY. London: Bmc; 2018;18.
IEEE
[1]
S. McCarthy et al., “Effects of long-term methylphenidate use on growth and blood pressure: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS),” BMC PSYCHIATRY, vol. 18, 2018.
@article{8610859,
  abstract     = {Background: Concerns have been raised over the safety of methylphenidate (MPH), with regard to adverse effects on growth and blood pressure. Our study investigates whether, and to what extent, methylphenidate use in boys with ADHD is associated with having low body mass index (BMI), having low height, and increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Methods: Data used for this study stem from the German KiGGS dataset. Three different groups of boys aged 6-15 years were included in the analysis: ADHD patients who used MPH for less than 12 months; ADHD patients who used MPH for 12 months or more; and ADHD patients without current MPH treatment. Each of these three groups was compared to a non-ADHD control group regarding low weight (BMI <= 3rd percentile), low height (<= 3rd percentile) and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure. For growth outcomes, boys were categorized according to age (< 11 years/>= 11 years, to account for pubertal maturation). Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to test for associations. Results: 4244 boys were included in the study; MPH < 12 months: n = 65 (n = 36 < 11 years), MPH >= 12 months: n = 53 (n = 22 < 11 years), ADHD controls: n = 320 (n = 132 < 11 years), non-ADHD controls: n = 3806 (n = 2003 < 11 years). Pre-pubertal boys with MPH use less than 12 months and pubertal/postpubertal boys with MPH use of 12 months or greater were significantly more likely to have a BMI <= 3rd percentile compared to non-ADHD controls. Boys from the ADHD control group were significantly less likely to have a raised systolic blood pressure compared to non-ADHD controls. Beyond that, no significant between group differences were observed for any other growth and BP parameter. Conclusion: The analyses of the KiGGS dataset showed that MPH use in boys with ADHD is associated with low BMI. However, this effect was only observed in certain groups. Furthermore, our analysis was unable to confirm that MPH use is also associated with low height (<= 3rd percentile) and changes in blood pressure.},
  articleno    = {327},
  author       = {McCarthy, Suzanne and Neubert, Antje and Man, Kenneth K. C. and Banaschewski, Tobias and Buitelaar, Jan and Carucci, Sara and Coghill, David and Danckaerts, Marina and Falissard, Bruno and Garas, Peter and Haege, Alexander and Hollis, Chris and Inglis, Sarah and Kovshoff, Hanna and Liddle, Elizabeth and Mechler, Konstantin and Nagy, Peter and Rosenthal, Eric and Schlack, Robert and Barke, Edmund and Zuddas, Alessandro and Wong, Ian C. K.},
  issn         = {1471-244X},
  journal      = {BMC PSYCHIATRY},
  keywords     = {DEFICIT-HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER,ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY,DISORDER,SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS,STIMULANT MEDICATION,ADHD,MEDICATIONS,RISK,PREVALENCE,HEIGHT,MANAGEMENT,ADULTS,ADHD,Methylphenidate,Safety,Growth,BMI,Blood pressure},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {10},
  publisher    = {Bmc},
  title        = {Effects of long-term methylphenidate use on growth and blood pressure: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-018-1884-7},
  volume       = {18},
  year         = {2018},
}

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