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Cortical motor threshold determination in dogs

Robrecht Dockx (UGent) , Chris Baeken (UGent) , Lise Vlerick (UGent) , Sofie Bhatti (UGent) , Ingeborgh Polis (UGent) , Nick Van Laeken (UGent) , Luc Van Ham (UGent) , Filip De Vos (UGent) , Jimmy Saunders (UGent) and Kathelijne Peremans (UGent)
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Abstract
In humans, determining the cortical motor threshold (CMT) is a critical step in successfully applying a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) treatment. Stimulus intensity, safety and efficacy of a TMS treatment are dependent of the correct assessment of the CMT. Given that TMS in dogs could serve as a natural animal model, an accurate and reliable technique for the measurement of the CMT should be available for dogs. Using a visual descending staircase paradigm (Rossini paradigm), the CMT repeatability was assessed and compared to the electromyographic (EMG) variant. The influence of a HF-rTMS treatment on the CMT was examined. Subsequently, the CMT was measured under sedation and general anaesthesia. Finally, the coil-cortex distance was associated with the CMT, weight, age and gender. During one year the CMT was measured three times, during which it remained constant, although a higher CMT was measured (40% higher machine output) when using EMG (P-value < .001) and under general anaesthesia (P-value = .005). On average, a 40% and 12% higher machine output were registered. An aHF-rTMS protocol does not influence the CMT. Males have on average a 5.2 mm larger coil cortex distance and an 11.81% higher CMT. The CMT was positively linearly associated (P-value < .05) with the weight and age of the animals. Only within female subjects, a positive linear association was found between the CMT and the coil-cortex distance (P-value = .02). Using the visual Rossini paradigm, the CMT can be reliably used over time and during a TMS treatment. It has to be kept in mind that when using EMG or assessing the CMT under general anaesthesia, a higher CMT is to be expected. As in humans, every parameter that influences the coil-cortex distance may also influence the CMT.
Keywords
Dog, Cortical motor threshold, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, Electromyography, Anaesthesia, Coil-cortex distance, TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION, EVOKED-POTENTIALS, SPINAL-CORD, HF-RTMS, DOBERMAN-PINSCHERS, ANESTHETIC AGENTS, CORTEX DISTANCE, CANINE MODEL, EXCITABILITY, BRAIN

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MLA
Dockx, Robrecht, et al. “Cortical Motor Threshold Determination in Dogs.” RESEARCH IN VETERINARY SCIENCE, vol. 124, 2019, pp. 248–55, doi:10.1016/j.rvsc.2019.03.022.
APA
Dockx, R., Baeken, C., Vlerick, L., Bhatti, S., Polis, I., Van Laeken, N., … Peremans, K. (2019). Cortical motor threshold determination in dogs. RESEARCH IN VETERINARY SCIENCE, 124, 248–255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2019.03.022
Chicago author-date
Dockx, Robrecht, Chris Baeken, Lise Vlerick, Sofie Bhatti, Ingeborgh Polis, Nick Van Laeken, Luc Van Ham, Filip De Vos, Jimmy Saunders, and Kathelijne Peremans. 2019. “Cortical Motor Threshold Determination in Dogs.” RESEARCH IN VETERINARY SCIENCE 124: 248–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2019.03.022.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Dockx, Robrecht, Chris Baeken, Lise Vlerick, Sofie Bhatti, Ingeborgh Polis, Nick Van Laeken, Luc Van Ham, Filip De Vos, Jimmy Saunders, and Kathelijne Peremans. 2019. “Cortical Motor Threshold Determination in Dogs.” RESEARCH IN VETERINARY SCIENCE 124: 248–255. doi:10.1016/j.rvsc.2019.03.022.
Vancouver
1.
Dockx R, Baeken C, Vlerick L, Bhatti S, Polis I, Van Laeken N, et al. Cortical motor threshold determination in dogs. RESEARCH IN VETERINARY SCIENCE. 2019;124:248–55.
IEEE
[1]
R. Dockx et al., “Cortical motor threshold determination in dogs,” RESEARCH IN VETERINARY SCIENCE, vol. 124, pp. 248–255, 2019.
@article{8610838,
  abstract     = {In humans, determining the cortical motor threshold (CMT) is a critical step in successfully applying a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) treatment. Stimulus intensity, safety and efficacy of a TMS treatment are dependent of the correct assessment of the CMT. Given that TMS in dogs could serve as a natural animal model, an accurate and reliable technique for the measurement of the CMT should be available for dogs. Using a visual descending staircase paradigm (Rossini paradigm), the CMT repeatability was assessed and compared to the electromyographic (EMG) variant. The influence of a HF-rTMS treatment on the CMT was examined. Subsequently, the CMT was measured under sedation and general anaesthesia. Finally, the coil-cortex distance was associated with the CMT, weight, age and gender. During one year the CMT was measured three times, during which it remained constant, although a higher CMT was measured (40% higher machine output) when using EMG (P-value < .001) and under general anaesthesia (P-value = .005). On average, a 40% and 12% higher machine output were registered. An aHF-rTMS protocol does not influence the CMT. Males have on average a 5.2 mm larger coil cortex distance and an 11.81% higher CMT. The CMT was positively linearly associated (P-value < .05) with the weight and age of the animals. Only within female subjects, a positive linear association was found between the CMT and the coil-cortex distance (P-value = .02). Using the visual Rossini paradigm, the CMT can be reliably used over time and during a TMS treatment. It has to be kept in mind that when using EMG or assessing the CMT under general anaesthesia, a higher CMT is to be expected. As in humans, every parameter that influences the coil-cortex distance may also influence the CMT.},
  author       = {Dockx, Robrecht and Baeken, Chris and Vlerick, Lise and Bhatti, Sofie and Polis, Ingeborgh and Van Laeken, Nick and Van Ham, Luc and De Vos, Filip and Saunders, Jimmy and Peremans, Kathelijne},
  issn         = {0034-5288},
  journal      = {RESEARCH IN VETERINARY SCIENCE},
  keywords     = {Dog,Cortical motor threshold,Transcranial magnetic stimulation,Electromyography,Anaesthesia,Coil-cortex distance,TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION,EVOKED-POTENTIALS,SPINAL-CORD,HF-RTMS,DOBERMAN-PINSCHERS,ANESTHETIC AGENTS,CORTEX DISTANCE,CANINE MODEL,EXCITABILITY,BRAIN},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {248--255},
  title        = {Cortical motor threshold determination in dogs},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2019.03.022},
  volume       = {124},
  year         = {2019},
}

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