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Disruption of skin microbiota contributes to salamander disease

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Organization
Abstract
Escalating occurrences of emerging infectious diseases underscore the importance of understanding microbiome-pathogen interactions. The amphibian cutaneous microbiome is widely studied for its potential to mitigate disease-mediated amphibian declines. Other microbial interactions in this system, however, have been largely neglected in the context of disease outbreaks. European fire salamanders have suffered dramatic population crashes as a result of the newly emerged Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). In this paper, we investigate microbial interactions on multiple fronts within this system. We show that wild, healthy fire salamanders maintain complex skin microbiotas containing Bsal-inhibitory members, but these community are present at a remarkably lowabundance. Through experimentation, we show that increasing bacterial densities of Bsal-inhibiting bacteria via daily addition slowed disease progression in fire salamanders. Additionally, we find that experimental-Bsal infection elicited subtle changes in the skin microbiome, with selected opportunistic bacteria increasing in relative abundance resulting in septicemic events that coincide with extensive destruction of the epidermis. These results suggest that fire salamander skin, in natural settings, maintains bacterial communities at numbers too low to confer sufficient protection against Bsal, and, in fact, the native skin microbiota can constitute a source of opportunistic bacterial pathogens that contribute to pathogenesis. By shedding light on the complex interaction between the microbiome and a lethal pathogen, these data put the interplay between skin microbiomes and a wildlife disease into a new perspective.
Keywords
BATRACHOCHYTRIUM-DENDROBATIDIS, SP-NOV, AMPHIBIAN CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS, INFECTIOUS-DISEASES, SYMBIOTIC BACTERIA, INHIBIT GROWTH, HEALTH, SALAMANDRIVORANS, EXTINCTION, STRATEGIES, host microbiome, disease, amphibians, chytridiomycosis, Batrachochytrium, salamandrivorans, wildlife diseases

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Citation

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MLA
Bletz, Molly C et al. “Disruption of Skin Microbiota Contributes to Salamander Disease.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 285.1885 (2018): n. pag. Print.
APA
Bletz, M. C., Kelly, M., Sabino-Pinto, J., Bales, E., Van Praet, S., Bert, W., Boyen, F., et al. (2018). Disruption of skin microbiota contributes to salamander disease. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 285(1885).
Chicago author-date
Bletz, Molly C, Moira Kelly, Joana Sabino-Pinto, Emma Bales, Sarah Van Praet, Wim Bert, Filip Boyen, et al. 2018. “Disruption of Skin Microbiota Contributes to Salamander Disease.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B-biological Sciences 285 (1885).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Bletz, Molly C, Moira Kelly, Joana Sabino-Pinto, Emma Bales, Sarah Van Praet, Wim Bert, Filip Boyen, Miguel Vences, Sebastian Steinfartz, Frank Pasmans, and An Martel. 2018. “Disruption of Skin Microbiota Contributes to Salamander Disease.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B-biological Sciences 285 (1885).
Vancouver
1.
Bletz MC, Kelly M, Sabino-Pinto J, Bales E, Van Praet S, Bert W, et al. Disruption of skin microbiota contributes to salamander disease. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 2018;285(1885).
IEEE
[1]
M. C. Bletz et al., “Disruption of skin microbiota contributes to salamander disease,” PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, vol. 285, no. 1885, 2018.
@article{8610474,
  abstract     = {Escalating occurrences of emerging infectious diseases underscore the importance of understanding microbiome-pathogen interactions. The amphibian cutaneous microbiome is widely studied for its potential to mitigate disease-mediated amphibian declines. Other microbial interactions in this system, however, have been largely neglected in the context of disease outbreaks. European fire salamanders have suffered dramatic population crashes as a result of the newly emerged Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). In this paper, we investigate microbial interactions on multiple fronts within this system. We show that wild, healthy fire salamanders maintain complex skin microbiotas containing Bsal-inhibitory members, but these community are present at a remarkably lowabundance. Through experimentation, we show that increasing bacterial densities of Bsal-inhibiting bacteria via daily addition slowed disease progression in fire salamanders. Additionally, we find that experimental-Bsal infection elicited subtle changes in the skin microbiome, with selected opportunistic bacteria increasing in relative abundance resulting in septicemic events that coincide with extensive destruction of the epidermis. These results suggest that fire salamander skin, in natural settings, maintains bacterial communities at numbers too low to confer sufficient protection against Bsal, and, in fact, the native skin microbiota can constitute a source of opportunistic bacterial pathogens that contribute to pathogenesis. By shedding light on the complex interaction between the microbiome and a lethal pathogen, these data put the interplay between skin microbiomes and a wildlife disease into a new perspective.},
  articleno    = {20180758},
  author       = {Bletz, Molly C and Kelly, Moira and Sabino-Pinto, Joana and Bales, Emma and Van Praet, Sarah and Bert, Wim and Boyen, Filip and Vences, Miguel and Steinfartz, Sebastian and Pasmans, Frank and Martel, An},
  issn         = {0962-8452},
  journal      = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES},
  keywords     = {BATRACHOCHYTRIUM-DENDROBATIDIS,SP-NOV,AMPHIBIAN CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS,INFECTIOUS-DISEASES,SYMBIOTIC BACTERIA,INHIBIT GROWTH,HEALTH,SALAMANDRIVORANS,EXTINCTION,STRATEGIES,host microbiome,disease,amphibians,chytridiomycosis,Batrachochytrium,salamandrivorans,wildlife diseases},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1885},
  pages        = {10},
  title        = {Disruption of skin microbiota contributes to salamander disease},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.0758},
  volume       = {285},
  year         = {2018},
}

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