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Urethroplasty for urethral injuries and trauma-related strictures in children and adolescents : a single-institution experience

Marjan Waterloos (UGent) , Wesley Verla (UGent) , Anne-Françoise Spinoit (UGent) , Willem Oosterlinck (UGent) , Erik Van Laecke (UGent) , Piet Hoebeke (UGent) and Nicolaas Lumen (UGent)
(2019) JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC UROLOGY. 15(2). p.176.e1-176.e7
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Organization
Abstract
Introduction : Urethral injuries and trauma-related strictures (UITSs) in children are rare. The treatment is challenging but crucial to avoid life-long urinary complications such as recurrent stricture formation, urinary incontinence, and impotence. Objective : The aim was to report on the surgical and functional outcome of urethroplasty for UITSs and to provide data on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). Material and methods : Between November 2001 and October 2017, 18 male children (<= 18 years; median: 13 years) underwent urethroplasty for UITSs at a single tertiary referral center. Etiology was iatrogenic in five (27.8%), perineal straddle injury in six (33.3%) and pelvic fracture urethral injury (PFUI) in seven (38.8%) patients. PFUIs and short (<= 3 cm) bulbar strictures were treated by transperineal anastomotic repair (n = 15; 83.3%), whereas a long bulbar stricture and a penile stricture were treated by, respectively, a preputial skin graft and flap urethroplasty. A penetrating penile urethral injury during circumcision underwent early exploration with primary repair of the laceration. Failure was defined as need for additional urethral instrumentation. PROMs were sent to patients >= 16 years at the latest evaluation. Results : Median follow-up was 57 (range: 8-198) months. No complications and grade 1, 2, and 3 were present in, respectively, 13 (72.2%), two (11.1%), one (5.6%), and two (11.1%) patients. The success rate in a tertiary referral center was 94.4%. An immediate failure was observed in a patient with a PFUI and concomitant bladder neck injury. PROMs were available in 12 patients. Four patients (33.3%) reported erectile dysfunction. Post-void dribbling (25%) and urgency (50%) were the most frequently reported complaints. All patients were satisfied after urethroplasty and stated that they would undergo the surgery again. Discussion : This series corroborates the recent trend in favor of transperineal anastomotic repair for PFUI, with combined abdominoperineal approach reserved for complex situations (e.g. bladder neck injury). For anterior UITSs, adaption of the technique to the characteristics of UITSs (etiology, location, length, and quality of graft bed) yielded excellent outcomes. Future systematic use of PROMs is also needed in children to elucidate the impact of urethroplasty on the urinary and sexual function. Conclusion : External trauma is the most important etiology of UITSs, but iatrogenic causes should not be neglected. Urethroplasty, mainly by anastomotic repair (AR) but with the technique adapted to local stricture characteristics if necessary, has an excellent long-term success rate in experienced hands. Functional disturbances are frequent, but despite this, patient satisfaction is high after urethroplasty.
Keywords
Urethra, Urethral stricture, Trauma, Injury, Pediatric, ERECTILE FUNCTION, MANAGEMENT, ANTERIOR, OUTCOMES, RECONSTRUCTION

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MLA
Waterloos, Marjan, et al. “Urethroplasty for Urethral Injuries and Trauma-Related Strictures in Children and Adolescents : A Single-Institution Experience.” JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC UROLOGY, vol. 15, no. 2, 2019, pp. 176.e1-176.e7.
APA
Waterloos, M., Verla, W., Spinoit, A.-F., Oosterlinck, W., Van Laecke, E., Hoebeke, P., & Lumen, N. (2019). Urethroplasty for urethral injuries and trauma-related strictures in children and adolescents : a single-institution experience. JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC UROLOGY, 15(2), 176.e1-176.e7.
Chicago author-date
Waterloos, Marjan, Wesley Verla, Anne-Françoise Spinoit, Willem Oosterlinck, Erik Van Laecke, Piet Hoebeke, and Nicolaas Lumen. 2019. “Urethroplasty for Urethral Injuries and Trauma-Related Strictures in Children and Adolescents : A Single-Institution Experience.” JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC UROLOGY 15 (2): 176.e1-176.e7.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Waterloos, Marjan, Wesley Verla, Anne-Françoise Spinoit, Willem Oosterlinck, Erik Van Laecke, Piet Hoebeke, and Nicolaas Lumen. 2019. “Urethroplasty for Urethral Injuries and Trauma-Related Strictures in Children and Adolescents : A Single-Institution Experience.” JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC UROLOGY 15 (2): 176.e1-176.e7.
Vancouver
1.
Waterloos M, Verla W, Spinoit A-F, Oosterlinck W, Van Laecke E, Hoebeke P, et al. Urethroplasty for urethral injuries and trauma-related strictures in children and adolescents : a single-institution experience. JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC UROLOGY. 2019;15(2):176.e1-176.e7.
IEEE
[1]
M. Waterloos et al., “Urethroplasty for urethral injuries and trauma-related strictures in children and adolescents : a single-institution experience,” JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC UROLOGY, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 176.e1-176.e7, 2019.
@article{8610442,
  abstract     = {Introduction : Urethral injuries and trauma-related strictures (UITSs) in children are rare. The treatment is challenging but crucial to avoid life-long urinary complications such as recurrent stricture formation, urinary incontinence, and impotence. 
Objective : The aim was to report on the surgical and functional outcome of urethroplasty for UITSs and to provide data on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). 
Material and methods : Between November 2001 and October 2017, 18 male children (<= 18 years; median: 13 years) underwent urethroplasty for UITSs at a single tertiary referral center. Etiology was iatrogenic in five (27.8%), perineal straddle injury in six (33.3%) and pelvic fracture urethral injury (PFUI) in seven (38.8%) patients. PFUIs and short (<= 3 cm) bulbar strictures were treated by transperineal anastomotic repair (n = 15; 83.3%), whereas a long bulbar stricture and a penile stricture were treated by, respectively, a preputial skin graft and flap urethroplasty. A penetrating penile urethral injury during circumcision underwent early exploration with primary repair of the laceration. Failure was defined as need for additional urethral instrumentation. PROMs were sent to patients >= 16 years at the latest evaluation. 
Results : Median follow-up was 57 (range: 8-198) months. No complications and grade 1, 2, and 3 were present in, respectively, 13 (72.2%), two (11.1%), one (5.6%), and two (11.1%) patients. The success rate in a tertiary referral center was 94.4%. An immediate failure was observed in a patient with a PFUI and concomitant bladder neck injury. PROMs were available in 12 patients. Four patients (33.3%) reported erectile dysfunction. Post-void dribbling (25%) and urgency (50%) were the most frequently reported complaints. All patients were satisfied after urethroplasty and stated that they would undergo the surgery again. 
Discussion : This series corroborates the recent trend in favor of transperineal anastomotic repair for PFUI, with combined abdominoperineal approach reserved for complex situations (e.g. bladder neck injury). For anterior UITSs, adaption of the technique to the characteristics of UITSs (etiology, location, length, and quality of graft bed) yielded excellent outcomes. Future systematic use of PROMs is also needed in children to elucidate the impact of urethroplasty on the urinary and sexual function. 
Conclusion : External trauma is the most important etiology of UITSs, but iatrogenic causes should not be neglected. Urethroplasty, mainly by anastomotic repair (AR) but with the technique adapted to local stricture characteristics if necessary, has an excellent long-term success rate in experienced hands. Functional disturbances are frequent, but despite this, patient satisfaction is high after urethroplasty.},
  author       = {Waterloos, Marjan and Verla, Wesley and Spinoit, Anne-Françoise and Oosterlinck, Willem and Van Laecke, Erik and Hoebeke, Piet and Lumen, Nicolaas},
  issn         = {1477-5131},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC UROLOGY},
  keywords     = {Urethra,Urethral stricture,Trauma,Injury,Pediatric,ERECTILE FUNCTION,MANAGEMENT,ANTERIOR,OUTCOMES,RECONSTRUCTION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {176.e1--176.e7},
  title        = {Urethroplasty for urethral injuries and trauma-related strictures in children and adolescents : a single-institution experience},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2018.11.014},
  volume       = {15},
  year         = {2019},
}

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