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Evaluation of an osteochondral fragment-groove procedure for induction of metacarpophalangeal joint osteoarthritis in horses

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Abstract
OBJECTIVE : To evaluate lameness and morphological changes associated with an osteochondral fragment-groove procedure as a means of experimental induction of metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint osteoarthritis within an 11-week period in horses. ANIMALS : 6 nonlame adult warmbloods. PROCEDURES : The right MCP joint of each horse underwent an osteochondral fragment-groove procedure (day 0). After 1 week of stall rest (ie, starting day 7), each horse was trained daily on a treadmill. Weekly, horses underwent visual and inertial sensor-based assessments of lameness. Both MCP joints were assessed radiographically on days 0 (before surgery), 1, 35, and 77. A synovial fluid sample was collected from the right MCP joint on days 0 (before surgery), 35, 36, 49, 63, and 77 for cytologic and biomarker analyses. On day 77, each horse was euthanized; both MCP joints were evaluated macroscopically and histologically. RESULTS : Right forelimb lameness was detected visually and by the inertial sensor system when horses were moving on a straight line after distal forelimb flexion or circling left on days 14 to 77. Compared with presurgical values, synovial fluid interleukin-6, prostaglandin E2, hyaluronic acid, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein concentrations were increased at 2 or 3 time points, whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10 concentrations were decreased at 1 time point. Gross examination of all right MCP joints revealed synovitis and wear lines; synovitis was confirmed histologically. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE : Results indicated that a combined osteochondral fragment-groove procedure can be used to induce clinically and grossly observable early MCP joint osteoarthritis during an 11-week period in horses.
Keywords
INERTIAL SENSOR SYSTEM, ARTICULAR-CARTILAGE, SYNOVIAL-FLUID, POSTTRAUMATIC OSTEOARTHRITIS, EQUINE, EXERCISE, MODEL, LAMENESS, INJURY

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MLA
Broeckx, Sarah et al. “Evaluation of an Osteochondral Fragment-groove Procedure for Induction of Metacarpophalangeal Joint Osteoarthritis in Horses.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH 80.3 (2019): 246–258. Print.
APA
Broeckx, S., Pille, F., Buntinx, S., Van Brantegem, L., Duchateau, L., Oosterlinck, M., Chiers, K., et al. (2019). Evaluation of an osteochondral fragment-groove procedure for induction of metacarpophalangeal joint osteoarthritis in horses. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH, 80(3), 246–258.
Chicago author-date
Broeckx, Sarah, Frederik Pille, Simon Buntinx, Leen Van Brantegem, Luc Duchateau, Maarten Oosterlinck, Koen Chiers, Alicia L Bertone, Jan H Spaas, and Ann Martens. 2019. “Evaluation of an Osteochondral Fragment-groove Procedure for Induction of Metacarpophalangeal Joint Osteoarthritis in Horses.” American Journal of Veterinary Research 80 (3): 246–258.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Broeckx, Sarah, Frederik Pille, Simon Buntinx, Leen Van Brantegem, Luc Duchateau, Maarten Oosterlinck, Koen Chiers, Alicia L Bertone, Jan H Spaas, and Ann Martens. 2019. “Evaluation of an Osteochondral Fragment-groove Procedure for Induction of Metacarpophalangeal Joint Osteoarthritis in Horses.” American Journal of Veterinary Research 80 (3): 246–258.
Vancouver
1.
Broeckx S, Pille F, Buntinx S, Van Brantegem L, Duchateau L, Oosterlinck M, et al. Evaluation of an osteochondral fragment-groove procedure for induction of metacarpophalangeal joint osteoarthritis in horses. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH. 2019;80(3):246–58.
IEEE
[1]
S. Broeckx et al., “Evaluation of an osteochondral fragment-groove procedure for induction of metacarpophalangeal joint osteoarthritis in horses,” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 246–258, 2019.
@article{8609533,
  abstract     = {OBJECTIVE : To evaluate lameness and morphological changes associated with an osteochondral fragment-groove procedure as a means of experimental induction of metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint osteoarthritis within an 11-week period in horses. 
ANIMALS : 6 nonlame adult warmbloods. 
PROCEDURES : The right MCP joint of each horse underwent an osteochondral fragment-groove procedure (day 0). After 1 week of stall rest (ie, starting day 7), each horse was trained daily on a treadmill. Weekly, horses underwent visual and inertial sensor-based assessments of lameness. Both MCP joints were assessed radiographically on days 0 (before surgery), 1, 35, and 77. A synovial fluid sample was collected from the right MCP joint on days 0 (before surgery), 35, 36, 49, 63, and 77 for cytologic and biomarker analyses. On day 77, each horse was euthanized; both MCP joints were evaluated macroscopically and histologically. 
RESULTS : Right forelimb lameness was detected visually and by the inertial sensor system when horses were moving on a straight line after distal forelimb flexion or circling left on days 14 to 77. Compared with presurgical values, synovial fluid interleukin-6, prostaglandin E2, hyaluronic acid, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein concentrations were increased at 2 or 3 time points, whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10 concentrations were decreased at 1 time point. Gross examination of all right MCP joints revealed synovitis and wear lines; synovitis was confirmed histologically. 
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE : Results indicated that a combined osteochondral fragment-groove procedure can be used to induce clinically and grossly observable early MCP joint osteoarthritis during an 11-week period in horses.},
  author       = {Broeckx, Sarah and Pille, Frederik and Buntinx, Simon and Van Brantegem, Leen and Duchateau, Luc and Oosterlinck, Maarten and Chiers, Koen and Bertone, Alicia L and Spaas, Jan H and Martens, Ann},
  issn         = {0002-9645},
  journal      = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH},
  keywords     = {INERTIAL SENSOR SYSTEM,ARTICULAR-CARTILAGE,SYNOVIAL-FLUID,POSTTRAUMATIC OSTEOARTHRITIS,EQUINE,EXERCISE,MODEL,LAMENESS,INJURY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {246--258},
  title        = {Evaluation of an osteochondral fragment-groove procedure for induction of metacarpophalangeal joint osteoarthritis in horses},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.80.3.246},
  volume       = {80},
  year         = {2019},
}

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