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Abstract
Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is being industrialized as the next candidate printing technique for high-volume manufacturing of scaled down integrated circuits. At mask level, the combination of EUV light at oblique incidence, absorber thickness, and non-uniform mirror reflectance through incidence angle, creates photomask-induced imaging aberrations, known as mask 3D (M3D) effects. A possible mitigation for the M3D effects in the EUV binary intensity mask (BIM), is to use mask absorber materials with high extinction coefficient k and refractive coefficient n close to unity. We propose nickel aluminide alloys as a candidate BIM absorber material, and characterize them versus a set of specifications that a novel EUV mask absorber must meet. The nickel aluminide samples have reduced crystallinity as compared to metallic nickel, and form a passivating surface oxide layer in neutral solutions. Composition and density profile are investigated to estimate the optical constants, which are then validated with EUV reflectometry. An oxidation-induced Al L2 absorption edge shift is observed, which significantly impacts the value of n at 13.5 nm wavelength and moves it closer to unity. The measured optical constants are incorporated in an accurate mask model for rigorous simulations. The M3D imaging impact of the nickel aluminide alloy mask absorbers, which predict significant M3D reduction in comparison to reference absorber materials. In this paper, we present an extensive experimental methodology flow to evaluate candidate mask absorber materials.
Keywords
CARBON, mask absorber, binary intensity mask, nickel, aluminum, mask 3D, imaging, impact, EUV lithography

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MLA
Luong, Vu et al. “Ni-Al Alloys as Alternative EUV Mask Absorber.” APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL 8.4 (2018): n. pag. Print.
APA
Luong, V., Philipsen, V., Hendrickx, E., Opsomer, K., Detavernier, C., Laubis, C., Scholze, F., et al. (2018). Ni-Al alloys as alternative EUV mask absorber. APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL, 8(4).
Chicago author-date
Luong, Vu, Vicky Philipsen, Eric Hendrickx, Karl Opsomer, Christophe Detavernier, Christian Laubis, Frank Scholze, and Marc Heyns. 2018. “Ni-Al Alloys as Alternative EUV Mask Absorber.” Applied Sciences-basel 8 (4).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Luong, Vu, Vicky Philipsen, Eric Hendrickx, Karl Opsomer, Christophe Detavernier, Christian Laubis, Frank Scholze, and Marc Heyns. 2018. “Ni-Al Alloys as Alternative EUV Mask Absorber.” Applied Sciences-basel 8 (4).
Vancouver
1.
Luong V, Philipsen V, Hendrickx E, Opsomer K, Detavernier C, Laubis C, et al. Ni-Al alloys as alternative EUV mask absorber. APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL. 2018;8(4).
IEEE
[1]
V. Luong et al., “Ni-Al alloys as alternative EUV mask absorber,” APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL, vol. 8, no. 4, 2018.
@article{8609303,
  abstract     = {Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is being industrialized as the next candidate printing technique for high-volume manufacturing of scaled down integrated circuits. At mask level, the combination of EUV light at oblique incidence, absorber thickness, and non-uniform mirror reflectance through incidence angle, creates photomask-induced imaging aberrations, known as mask 3D (M3D) effects. A possible mitigation for the M3D effects in the EUV binary intensity mask (BIM), is to use mask absorber materials with high extinction coefficient k and refractive coefficient n close to unity. We propose nickel aluminide alloys as a candidate BIM absorber material, and characterize them versus a set of specifications that a novel EUV mask absorber must meet. The nickel aluminide samples have reduced crystallinity as compared to metallic nickel, and form a passivating surface oxide layer in neutral solutions. Composition and density profile are investigated to estimate the optical constants, which are then validated with EUV reflectometry. An oxidation-induced Al L2 absorption edge shift is observed, which significantly impacts the value of n at 13.5 nm wavelength and moves it closer to unity. The measured optical constants are incorporated in an accurate mask model for rigorous simulations. The M3D imaging impact of the nickel aluminide alloy mask absorbers, which predict significant M3D reduction in comparison to reference absorber materials. In this paper, we present an extensive experimental methodology flow to evaluate candidate mask absorber materials.},
  articleno    = {521},
  author       = {Luong, Vu and Philipsen, Vicky and Hendrickx, Eric and Opsomer, Karl and Detavernier, Christophe and Laubis, Christian and Scholze, Frank and Heyns, Marc},
  issn         = {2076-3417},
  journal      = {APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL},
  keywords     = {CARBON,mask absorber,binary intensity mask,nickel,aluminum,mask 3D,imaging,impact,EUV lithography},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {21},
  title        = {Ni-Al alloys as alternative EUV mask absorber},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/app8040521},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2018},
}

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