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Insights into in vivo absolute oral bioavailability, biotransformation, and toxicokinetics of zearalenone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, zearalenone-14-glucoside, and zearalenone-14-sulfate in pigs

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Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the toxicokinetic characteristics of ZEN and its modified forms, alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZEL), beta-zearalenol (beta-ZEL), zearalenone-14-glucoside (ZEN14G), and zearalenone-14-sulfate (ZEN14S), including presystemic and systemic hydrolysis in pigs. Crossover pig trials were performed by means of intravenous and oral administration of ZEN and its modified forms. Systemic plasma concentrations of the administered toxins and their metabolites were quantified and further processed via tailor-made compartmental toxicokinetic models. Furthermore, portal plasma was analyzed to unravel the site of hydrolysis, and urine samples were analyzed to determine urinary excretion. Results demonstrate complete presystemic hydrolysis of ZEN14G and ZEN14S to ZEN and high oral bioavailability for all administered compounds, with further extensive first-pass glucuronidation. Conclusively, the modified-ZEN forms alpha-ZEL, beta-ZEL, ZEN14G, and ZEN14S contribute to overall ZEN systemic toxicity in pigs and should be taken into account for risk assessment.
Keywords
zearalenone, toxicokinetics, pig, zearalenone-14-glucoside, zearalenone-14-sulfate, TOXIN-CONTAMINATED MAIZE, MASS-SPECTROMETRY METHOD, MASKED FORMS, QUANTITATIVE-DETERMINATION, SPECIES-DIFFERENCES, MYCOTOXIN EXPOSURE, METABOLITES, DEOXYNIVALENOL, URINE, GLUCURONIDES

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MLA
Catteuw, Amelie et al. “Insights into in Vivo Absolute Oral Bioavailability, Biotransformation, and Toxicokinetics of Zearalenone, Α-zearalenol, Β-zearalenol, Zearalenone-14-glucoside, and Zearalenone-14-sulfate in Pigs.” JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY 67.12 (2019): 3448–3458. Print.
APA
Catteuw, A., Broekaert, N., De Baere, S., Lauwers, M., Gasthuys, E., Huybrechts, B., Callebaut, A., et al. (2019). Insights into in vivo absolute oral bioavailability, biotransformation, and toxicokinetics of zearalenone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, zearalenone-14-glucoside, and zearalenone-14-sulfate in pigs. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, 67(12), 3448–3458.
Chicago author-date
Catteuw, Amelie, Nathan Broekaert, Siegrid De Baere, Marianne Lauwers, Elke Gasthuys, Bart Huybrechts, Alfons Callebaut, et al. 2019. “Insights into in Vivo Absolute Oral Bioavailability, Biotransformation, and Toxicokinetics of Zearalenone, Α-zearalenol, Β-zearalenol, Zearalenone-14-glucoside, and Zearalenone-14-sulfate in Pigs.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 67 (12): 3448–3458.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Catteuw, Amelie, Nathan Broekaert, Siegrid De Baere, Marianne Lauwers, Elke Gasthuys, Bart Huybrechts, Alfons Callebaut, Lada Ivanova, Silvio Uhlig, Marthe De Boevre, Sarah De Saeger, Ronette Gehring, Mathias Devreese, and Siska Croubels. 2019. “Insights into in Vivo Absolute Oral Bioavailability, Biotransformation, and Toxicokinetics of Zearalenone, Α-zearalenol, Β-zearalenol, Zearalenone-14-glucoside, and Zearalenone-14-sulfate in Pigs.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 67 (12): 3448–3458.
Vancouver
1.
Catteuw A, Broekaert N, De Baere S, Lauwers M, Gasthuys E, Huybrechts B, et al. Insights into in vivo absolute oral bioavailability, biotransformation, and toxicokinetics of zearalenone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, zearalenone-14-glucoside, and zearalenone-14-sulfate in pigs. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY. 2019;67(12):3448–58.
IEEE
[1]
A. Catteuw et al., “Insights into in vivo absolute oral bioavailability, biotransformation, and toxicokinetics of zearalenone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, zearalenone-14-glucoside, and zearalenone-14-sulfate in pigs,” JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, vol. 67, no. 12, pp. 3448–3458, 2019.
@article{8609100,
  abstract     = {The aim of this study was to determine the toxicokinetic characteristics of ZEN and its modified forms, alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZEL), beta-zearalenol (beta-ZEL), zearalenone-14-glucoside (ZEN14G), and zearalenone-14-sulfate (ZEN14S), including presystemic and systemic hydrolysis in pigs. Crossover pig trials were performed by means of intravenous and oral administration of ZEN and its modified forms. Systemic plasma concentrations of the administered toxins and their metabolites were quantified and further processed via tailor-made compartmental toxicokinetic models. Furthermore, portal plasma was analyzed to unravel the site of hydrolysis, and urine samples were analyzed to determine urinary excretion. Results demonstrate complete presystemic hydrolysis of ZEN14G and ZEN14S to ZEN and high oral bioavailability for all administered compounds, with further extensive first-pass glucuronidation. Conclusively, the modified-ZEN forms alpha-ZEL, beta-ZEL, ZEN14G, and ZEN14S contribute to overall ZEN systemic toxicity in pigs and should be taken into account for risk assessment.},
  author       = {Catteuw, Amelie and Broekaert, Nathan and De Baere, Siegrid and Lauwers, Marianne and Gasthuys, Elke and Huybrechts, Bart and Callebaut, Alfons and Ivanova, Lada and Uhlig, Silvio and De Boevre, Marthe and De Saeger, Sarah and Gehring, Ronette and Devreese, Mathias and Croubels, Siska},
  issn         = {0021-8561},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY},
  keywords     = {zearalenone,toxicokinetics,pig,zearalenone-14-glucoside,zearalenone-14-sulfate,TOXIN-CONTAMINATED MAIZE,MASS-SPECTROMETRY METHOD,MASKED FORMS,QUANTITATIVE-DETERMINATION,SPECIES-DIFFERENCES,MYCOTOXIN EXPOSURE,METABOLITES,DEOXYNIVALENOL,URINE,GLUCURONIDES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {12},
  pages        = {3448--3458},
  title        = {Insights into in vivo absolute oral bioavailability, biotransformation, and toxicokinetics of zearalenone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, zearalenone-14-glucoside, and zearalenone-14-sulfate in pigs},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b05838},
  volume       = {67},
  year         = {2019},
}

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