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Implicit and Explicit Measures of Transformation of Function from Facial Expressions of Fear and of Happiness via Equivalence Relations

(2019) PSYCHOLOGICAL RECORD. 69(1). p.13-24
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Abstract
Studies on equivalence relations have suggested that abstract symbols might acquire emotional functions when related to facial expressions. The present study aimed to investigate the transformation of emotional functions from facial expressions of fear and of happiness to abstract stimuli via equivalence relations. A delayed matching-to-sample task established two equivalence classes between facial expressions of emotions and nonsense abstract stimuli: A1(Fear)-B1-C1-D1; A2(Happiness)-B2-C2-D2. After relational training (AB, AC, CD) and equivalence tests (BD, DB), the participants evaluated the meaning of one nonsense stimulus from each class (D1 and D2) by means of a semantic differential and an Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). Results from both the semantic differential and the IRAP supported the conclusion that the emotional functions of the faces, in terms of fear and happiness, had transformed via the equivalence classes to the D stimuli. Results are discussed in terms of the dynamics of arbitrarily applicable relational responding.
Keywords
ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE IRAP, CONTEXTUAL CONTROL, AVOIDANCE, DISCRIMINATION, STIMULI, INTERVENTION, RFT, Equivalence relations, Transformation of function, Semantic, differential, IRAP, Facial expression

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Chicago
Perez, William F., Joao Henrique de Almeida, Julio C. de Rose, Andrea H. Dorigon, Eduardo L. de Vasconcellos, Marco A. da Silva, Najra D. P. Lima, Roberta B. M. de Almeida, Rodrigo N. M. Montan, and Patrick Michael Dermot Barnes-Holmes. 2019. “Implicit and Explicit Measures of Transformation of Function from Facial Expressions of Fear and of Happiness via Equivalence Relations.” Psychological Record 69 (1): 13–24.
APA
Perez, W. F., de Almeida, J. H., de Rose, J. C., Dorigon, A. H., de Vasconcellos, E. L., da Silva, M. A., Lima, N. D. P., et al. (2019). Implicit and Explicit Measures of Transformation of Function from Facial Expressions of Fear and of Happiness via Equivalence Relations. PSYCHOLOGICAL RECORD, 69(1), 13–24.
Vancouver
1.
Perez WF, de Almeida JH, de Rose JC, Dorigon AH, de Vasconcellos EL, da Silva MA, et al. Implicit and Explicit Measures of Transformation of Function from Facial Expressions of Fear and of Happiness via Equivalence Relations. PSYCHOLOGICAL RECORD. New york: Springer; 2019;69(1):13–24.
MLA
Perez, William F. et al. “Implicit and Explicit Measures of Transformation of Function from Facial Expressions of Fear and of Happiness via Equivalence Relations.” PSYCHOLOGICAL RECORD 69.1 (2019): 13–24. Print.
@article{8608939,
  abstract     = {Studies on equivalence relations have suggested that abstract symbols might acquire emotional functions when related to facial expressions. The present study aimed to investigate the transformation of emotional functions from facial expressions of fear and of happiness to abstract stimuli via equivalence relations. A delayed matching-to-sample task established two equivalence classes between facial expressions of emotions and nonsense abstract stimuli: A1(Fear)-B1-C1-D1; A2(Happiness)-B2-C2-D2. After relational training (AB, AC, CD) and equivalence tests (BD, DB), the participants evaluated the meaning of one nonsense stimulus from each class (D1 and D2) by means of a semantic differential and an Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). Results from both the semantic differential and the IRAP supported the conclusion that the emotional functions of the faces, in terms of fear and happiness, had transformed via the equivalence classes to the D stimuli. Results are discussed in terms of the dynamics of arbitrarily applicable relational responding.},
  author       = {Perez, William F. and de Almeida, Joao Henrique and de Rose, Julio C. and Dorigon, Andrea H. and de Vasconcellos, Eduardo L. and da Silva, Marco A. and Lima, Najra D. P. and de Almeida, Roberta B. M. and Montan, Rodrigo N. M. and Barnes-Holmes, Patrick Michael Dermot},
  issn         = {0033-2933},
  journal      = {PSYCHOLOGICAL RECORD},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {13--24},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  title        = {Implicit and Explicit Measures of Transformation of Function from Facial Expressions of Fear and of Happiness via Equivalence Relations},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40732-018-0304-1},
  volume       = {69},
  year         = {2019},
}

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