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Multifaceted activity of cytokinin in leaf development shapes its size and structure in Arabidopsis

(2019) PLANT JOURNAL. 97(5). p.805-824
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Abstract
The phytohormone cytokinin has been shown to affect many aspects of plant development ranging from the regulation of the shoot apical meristem to leaf senescence. However, some studies have reported contradictory effects of cytokinin on leaf physiology. Therefore cytokinin treatments cause both chlorosis and increased greening and both lead to decrease or increase in cell size. To elucidate this multifaceted role of cytokinin in leaf development, we have employed a system of temporal controls over the cytokinin pool and investigated the consequences of modulated cytokinin levels in the third leaf of Arabidopsis. We show that, at the cell proliferation phase, cytokinin is needed to maintain cell proliferation by blocking the transition to cell expansion and the onset of photosynthesis. Transcriptome profiling revealed regulation by cytokinin of a gene suite previously shown to affect cell proliferation and expansion and thereby a molecular mechanism by which cytokinin modulates a molecular network underlying the cellular responses. During the cell expansion phase, cytokinin stimulates cell expansion and differentiation. Consequently, a cytokinin excess at the cell expansion phase results in an increased leaf and rosette size fueled by higher cell expansion rate, yielding higher shoot biomass. Proteome profiling revealed the stimulation of primary metabolism by cytokinin, in line with an increased sugar content that is expected to increase turgor pressure, representing the driving force of cell expansion. Therefore, the developmental timing of cytokinin content fluctuations, together with a tight control of primary metabolism, is a key factor mediating transitions from cell proliferation to cell expansion in leaves.
Keywords
Arabidopsis thaliana, cytokinin, leaf development, proteome, transcriptome, B RESPONSE REGULATORS, PLANT ORGAN SIZE, GENE-EXPRESSION, CELL-DIVISION, TETRAPYRROLE BIOSYNTHESIS, PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITY, ENDOGENOUS CYTOKININ, BINDING PROPERTIES, SIGNALING PATHWAY, ABSCISIC-ACID

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MLA
Skalák, Jan, et al. “Multifaceted Activity of Cytokinin in Leaf Development Shapes Its Size and Structure in Arabidopsis.” PLANT JOURNAL, vol. 97, no. 5, 2019, pp. 805–24.
APA
Skalák, J., Vercruyssen, L., Claeys, H., Hradilová, J., Černý, M., Novák, O., … Brzobohatý, B. (2019). Multifaceted activity of cytokinin in leaf development shapes its size and structure in Arabidopsis. PLANT JOURNAL, 97(5), 805–824.
Chicago author-date
Skalák, Jan, Liesbeth Vercruyssen, Hannes Claeys, Jana Hradilová, Martin Černý, Ondřej Novák, Lenka Plačková, et al. 2019. “Multifaceted Activity of Cytokinin in Leaf Development Shapes Its Size and Structure in Arabidopsis.” PLANT JOURNAL 97 (5): 805–24.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Skalák, Jan, Liesbeth Vercruyssen, Hannes Claeys, Jana Hradilová, Martin Černý, Ondřej Novák, Lenka Plačková, Iñigo Saiz-Fernández, Patricie Skaláková, Frederik Coppens, Stijn Dhondt, Šárka Koukalová, Jan Zouhar, Dirk Inzé, and Břetislav Brzobohatý. 2019. “Multifaceted Activity of Cytokinin in Leaf Development Shapes Its Size and Structure in Arabidopsis.” PLANT JOURNAL 97 (5): 805–824.
Vancouver
1.
Skalák J, Vercruyssen L, Claeys H, Hradilová J, Černý M, Novák O, et al. Multifaceted activity of cytokinin in leaf development shapes its size and structure in Arabidopsis. PLANT JOURNAL. 2019;97(5):805–24.
IEEE
[1]
J. Skalák et al., “Multifaceted activity of cytokinin in leaf development shapes its size and structure in Arabidopsis,” PLANT JOURNAL, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 805–824, 2019.
@article{8608849,
  abstract     = {The phytohormone cytokinin has been shown to affect many aspects of plant development ranging from the regulation of the shoot apical meristem to leaf senescence. However, some studies have reported contradictory effects of cytokinin on leaf physiology. Therefore cytokinin treatments cause both chlorosis and increased greening and both lead to decrease or increase in cell size. To elucidate this multifaceted role of cytokinin in leaf development, we have employed a system of temporal controls over the cytokinin pool and investigated the consequences of modulated cytokinin levels in the third leaf of Arabidopsis. We show that, at the cell proliferation phase, cytokinin is needed to maintain cell proliferation by blocking the transition to cell expansion and the onset of photosynthesis. Transcriptome profiling revealed regulation by cytokinin of a gene suite previously shown to affect cell proliferation and expansion and thereby a molecular mechanism by which cytokinin modulates a molecular network underlying the cellular responses. During the cell expansion phase, cytokinin stimulates cell expansion and differentiation. Consequently, a cytokinin excess at the cell expansion phase results in an increased leaf and rosette size fueled by higher cell expansion rate, yielding higher shoot biomass. Proteome profiling revealed the stimulation of primary metabolism by cytokinin, in line with an increased sugar content that is expected to increase turgor pressure, representing the driving force of cell expansion. Therefore, the developmental timing of cytokinin content fluctuations, together with a tight control of primary metabolism, is a key factor mediating transitions from cell proliferation to cell expansion in leaves.},
  author       = {Skalák, Jan and Vercruyssen, Liesbeth and Claeys, Hannes and Hradilová, Jana and Černý, Martin and Novák, Ondřej and Plačková, Lenka and Saiz-Fernández, Iñigo and Skaláková, Patricie and Coppens, Frederik and Dhondt, Stijn and Koukalová, Šárka and Zouhar, Jan and Inzé, Dirk and Brzobohatý, Břetislav},
  issn         = {0960-7412},
  journal      = {PLANT JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {Arabidopsis thaliana,cytokinin,leaf development,proteome,transcriptome,B RESPONSE REGULATORS,PLANT ORGAN SIZE,GENE-EXPRESSION,CELL-DIVISION,TETRAPYRROLE BIOSYNTHESIS,PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITY,ENDOGENOUS CYTOKININ,BINDING PROPERTIES,SIGNALING PATHWAY,ABSCISIC-ACID},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {805--824},
  title        = {Multifaceted activity of cytokinin in leaf development shapes its size and structure in Arabidopsis},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14285},
  volume       = {97},
  year         = {2019},
}

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