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Therapists’ responses toward dependent (anaclitic) and self-critical (introjective) depressed outpatients : a multilevel approach

Vicky Hennissen (UGent) , Reitske Meganck (UGent) , Kimberly Van Nieuwenhove (UGent) , Ufuoma Angelica Norman (UGent) , Tom Loeys (UGent) and Mattias Desmet (UGent)
(2019) PSYCHOTHERAPY. 56(2). p.193-204
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Abstract
Drawing on Blatt's theory about personality styles, we examined therapists' affective experiences toward depressed patients with dependent (anaclitic) and self-critical (introjective) personality styles. In addition, we investigated the relationship between therapists' responses, symptom severity, and therapeutic change. Therapists (N = 8) completed the Therapist Response Questionnaire (TRQ) at 5 time points for 50 dependent (anaclitic) and 34 self-critical (introjective) patients (N = 84) over the course of 20-session therapies. Consistent with our predictions, multilevel regression analyses showed that therapists experience stronger responses on the TRQ dimension "parental/protective" toward dependent (anaclitic) patients than toward self-critical (introjective) patients. Ilowever, we found no significant relationships between the personality styles and other TRQ dimensions. Furthermore. we found that cognitive-behavioral therapists reported stronger affective responses than psychodynamic therapists. No significant associations were found between the severity of patients' symptoms at the start of treatment and the general intensity of therapists' initial affective experiences, yet therapists experienced stronger emotional reactions when patients made no therapeutic progress. Although further in-depth research on the relationship between therapist responses and patients' personality styles is needed, this study provides partial evidence for Blatt's assertion that the two personality styles are relevant for understanding transference and countertransference processes in therapy.
Keywords
Clinical Psychology, Psychiatry and Mental health, therapist responses, countertransference, depression, Blatt, Therapist Response Questionnaire, COUNTERTRANSFERENCE REACTIONS, INTERPERSONAL RELATEDNESS, PERSONALITY PATHOLOGY, THERAPEUTIC ALLIANCE, EXPERIENCES, CLIENTS, PSYCHOTHERAPY, DIMENSIONS, SYMPTOMS, FEELINGS

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MLA
Hennissen, Vicky, et al. “Therapists’ Responses toward Dependent (Anaclitic) and Self-Critical (Introjective) Depressed Outpatients : A Multilevel Approach.” PSYCHOTHERAPY, vol. 56, no. 2, 2019, pp. 193–204, doi:10.1037/pst0000213.
APA
Hennissen, V., Meganck, R., Van Nieuwenhove, K., Norman, U. A., Loeys, T., & Desmet, M. (2019). Therapists’ responses toward dependent (anaclitic) and self-critical (introjective) depressed outpatients : a multilevel approach. PSYCHOTHERAPY, 56(2), 193–204. https://doi.org/10.1037/pst0000213
Chicago author-date
Hennissen, Vicky, Reitske Meganck, Kimberly Van Nieuwenhove, Ufuoma Angelica Norman, Tom Loeys, and Mattias Desmet. 2019. “Therapists’ Responses toward Dependent (Anaclitic) and Self-Critical (Introjective) Depressed Outpatients : A Multilevel Approach.” PSYCHOTHERAPY 56 (2): 193–204. https://doi.org/10.1037/pst0000213.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Hennissen, Vicky, Reitske Meganck, Kimberly Van Nieuwenhove, Ufuoma Angelica Norman, Tom Loeys, and Mattias Desmet. 2019. “Therapists’ Responses toward Dependent (Anaclitic) and Self-Critical (Introjective) Depressed Outpatients : A Multilevel Approach.” PSYCHOTHERAPY 56 (2): 193–204. doi:10.1037/pst0000213.
Vancouver
1.
Hennissen V, Meganck R, Van Nieuwenhove K, Norman UA, Loeys T, Desmet M. Therapists’ responses toward dependent (anaclitic) and self-critical (introjective) depressed outpatients : a multilevel approach. PSYCHOTHERAPY. 2019;56(2):193–204.
IEEE
[1]
V. Hennissen, R. Meganck, K. Van Nieuwenhove, U. A. Norman, T. Loeys, and M. Desmet, “Therapists’ responses toward dependent (anaclitic) and self-critical (introjective) depressed outpatients : a multilevel approach,” PSYCHOTHERAPY, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 193–204, 2019.
@article{8608466,
  abstract     = {Drawing on Blatt's theory about personality styles, we examined therapists' affective experiences toward depressed patients with dependent (anaclitic) and self-critical (introjective) personality styles. In addition, we investigated the relationship between therapists' responses, symptom severity, and therapeutic change. Therapists (N = 8) completed the Therapist Response Questionnaire (TRQ) at 5 time points for 50 dependent (anaclitic) and 34 self-critical (introjective) patients (N = 84) over the course of 20-session therapies. Consistent with our predictions, multilevel regression analyses showed that therapists experience stronger responses on the TRQ dimension "parental/protective" toward dependent (anaclitic) patients than toward self-critical (introjective) patients. Ilowever, we found no significant relationships between the personality styles and other TRQ dimensions. Furthermore. we found that cognitive-behavioral therapists reported stronger affective responses than psychodynamic therapists. No significant associations were found between the severity of patients' symptoms at the start of treatment and the general intensity of therapists' initial affective experiences, yet therapists experienced stronger emotional reactions when patients made no therapeutic progress. Although further in-depth research on the relationship between therapist responses and patients' personality styles is needed, this study provides partial evidence for Blatt's assertion that the two personality styles are relevant for understanding transference and countertransference processes in therapy.},
  author       = {Hennissen, Vicky and Meganck, Reitske and Van Nieuwenhove, Kimberly and Norman, Ufuoma Angelica and Loeys, Tom and Desmet, Mattias},
  issn         = {0033-3204},
  journal      = {PSYCHOTHERAPY},
  keywords     = {Clinical Psychology,Psychiatry and Mental health,therapist responses,countertransference,depression,Blatt,Therapist Response Questionnaire,COUNTERTRANSFERENCE REACTIONS,INTERPERSONAL RELATEDNESS,PERSONALITY PATHOLOGY,THERAPEUTIC ALLIANCE,EXPERIENCES,CLIENTS,PSYCHOTHERAPY,DIMENSIONS,SYMPTOMS,FEELINGS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {193--204},
  title        = {Therapists’ responses toward dependent (anaclitic) and self-critical (introjective) depressed outpatients : a multilevel approach},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pst0000213},
  volume       = {56},
  year         = {2019},
}

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