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A 4-year-old boy presenting with persistent urinary incontinence : questions

Werner Keenswijk (UGent) and Johan Vande Walle (UGent)
(2016) PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY. 32(5). p.767-768
Author
Organization
Abstract
A 4-year-old boy was referred to the nephrologist with daytime urinary incontinence and suspicion of an overactive bladder. At the age of 17 months he had been referred to the pediatric endocrinologist because of polyuria and polydipsia in order to exclude diabetes insipidus. Repeated water deprivation tests and a magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain were normal. Diabetes insipidus was excluded, and primary polydipsia was thought to be most likely since diabetes mellitus also had been excluded. At the current presentation, he drank up to 3 L a day and quite often had wet diapers. He also seemed to pass stools infrequently and with difficulty. Curiously his grandmother had similar symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia since childhood and had been diagnosed with primary polydipsia. The physical examination of our pediatric patient was normal. In the differential diagnosis we included diabetes insipidus but also contemplated other possibilities, such as nephronophthisis, tubulopathies and hypercalciuria. Laboratory results including urinalysis and an ultrasound of the kidney did not show any abnormalities, making a tubulopathy or hypercalciuria unlikely. A desmopressin test by the intravenous route came back completely normal, pointing to another cause than diabetes insipidus. Genetic testing for the nephronophthisis came back negative but was positive for a missense mutation in the AVPR2 gene (p.Arg104Cys) associated with partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. He was started on daily desmopressin. Within 3 days the urinary incontinence resolved as did the polyuria and faecal incontinence. His grandmother was referred to the geneticist and eventually the adult nephrologist. This case highlights the importance of being thorough when confronted with a difficult diagnosis. It also emphasizes that a test result does not necessarily equate to the presence or absence of a condition since the test with 100 % sensitivity and specificity has yet to be discovered.
Keywords
Urinary incontinence, Polyuria, Polydipsia, Arginine vasopressin

Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Keenswijk, Werner, and Johan Vande Walle. “A 4-year-old Boy Presenting with Persistent Urinary Incontinence : Questions.” PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY 2016 : 767–768. Print.
APA
Keenswijk, W., & Vande Walle, J. (2016). A 4-year-old boy presenting with persistent urinary incontinence : questions. PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY.
Chicago author-date
Keenswijk, Werner, and Johan Vande Walle. 2016. “A 4-year-old Boy Presenting with Persistent Urinary Incontinence : Questions.” Pediatric Nephrology.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Keenswijk, Werner, and Johan Vande Walle. 2016. “A 4-year-old Boy Presenting with Persistent Urinary Incontinence : Questions.” Pediatric Nephrology.
Vancouver
1.
Keenswijk W, Vande Walle J. A 4-year-old boy presenting with persistent urinary incontinence : questions. PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY. 2016. p. 767–8.
IEEE
[1]
W. Keenswijk and J. Vande Walle, “A 4-year-old boy presenting with persistent urinary incontinence : questions,” PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY, vol. 32, no. 5. pp. 767–768, 2016.
@misc{8607799,
  abstract     = {A 4-year-old boy was referred to the nephrologist with daytime urinary incontinence and suspicion of an overactive bladder. At the age of 17 months he had been referred to the pediatric endocrinologist because of polyuria and polydipsia in order to exclude diabetes insipidus. Repeated water deprivation tests and a magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain were normal. Diabetes insipidus was excluded, and primary polydipsia was thought to be most likely since diabetes mellitus also had been excluded. At the current presentation, he drank up to 3 L a day and quite often had wet diapers. He also seemed to pass stools infrequently and with difficulty. Curiously his grandmother had similar symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia since childhood and had been diagnosed with primary polydipsia. The physical examination of our pediatric patient was normal. In the differential diagnosis we included diabetes insipidus but also contemplated other possibilities, such as nephronophthisis, tubulopathies and hypercalciuria. Laboratory results including urinalysis and an ultrasound of the kidney did not show any abnormalities, making a tubulopathy or hypercalciuria unlikely. A desmopressin test by the intravenous route came back completely normal, pointing to another cause than diabetes insipidus. Genetic testing for the nephronophthisis came back negative but was positive for a missense mutation in the AVPR2 gene (p.Arg104Cys) associated with partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. He was started on daily desmopressin. Within 3 days the urinary incontinence resolved as did the polyuria and faecal incontinence. His grandmother was referred to the geneticist and eventually the adult nephrologist. This case highlights the importance of being thorough when confronted with a difficult diagnosis. It also emphasizes that a test result does not necessarily equate to the presence or absence of a condition since the test with 100 % sensitivity and specificity has yet to be discovered.},
  author       = {Keenswijk, Werner and Vande Walle, Johan},
  issn         = {0931-041X},
  keywords     = {Urinary incontinence,Polyuria,Polydipsia,Arginine vasopressin},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {767--768},
  series       = {PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY},
  title        = {A 4-year-old boy presenting with persistent urinary incontinence : questions},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-016-3441-2},
  volume       = {32},
  year         = {2016},
}

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