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The cosmic spectral energy distribution in the EAGLE simulation

Maarten Baes (UGent) , Ana Trčka (UGent) , Peter Camps (UGent) , Angelos Nersesian (UGent) , James Trayford, Tom Theuns and Wouter Dobbels (UGent)
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Abstract
The cosmic spectral energy distribution (CSED) is the total emissivity as a function of wavelength of galaxies in a given cosmic volume. We compare the observed CSED from the UV to the submm to that computed from the EAGLE (Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments) cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, post-processed with stellar population synthesis models and including dust radiative transfer using the SKIRT code. The agreement with the data is better than 0.15 dex over the entire wavelength range at redshift z = 0, except at UV wavelengths where the EAGLE model overestimates the observed CSED by up to a factor of 2. Global properties of the CSED as inferred from CIGALE fits, such as the stellar mass density, mean star formation density, and mean dust-to-stellar-mass ratio, agree to within better than 20 percent. At higher redshift, EAGLE increasingly underestimates the CSED at optical–NIR wavelengths with the FIR/submm emissivity underestimated by more than a factor of 5 by redshift z = 1. We believe that these differences are due to a combination of incompleteness of the EAGLE-SKIRT data base, the small simulation volume and the consequent lack of luminous galaxies, and our lack of knowledge on the evolution of the characteristics of the interstellar dust in galaxies. The impressive agreement between the simulated and observed CSED at lower z confirms that the combination of EAGLE and SKIRT dust processing yields a fairly realistic representation of the local Universe.
Keywords
hydrodynamics, radiative transfer, galaxies: evolution, cosmology: observations, MASS ASSEMBLY GAMA, STELLAR POPULATION SYNTHESIS, GALAXY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION, EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT, RADIATIVE-TRANSFER CODE, STAR-FORMATION HISTORY, HERSCHEL-ATLAS, DISC GALAXIES, DUST CONTENT, MU-M

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Citation

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MLA
Baes, Maarten et al. “The Cosmic Spectral Energy Distribution in the EAGLE Simulation.” MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 484.3 (2019): 4069–4082. Print.
APA
Baes, M., Trčka, A., Camps, P., Nersesian, A., Trayford, J., Theuns, T., & Dobbels, W. (2019). The cosmic spectral energy distribution in the EAGLE simulation. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, 484(3), 4069–4082.
Chicago author-date
Baes, Maarten, Ana Trčka, Peter Camps, Angelos Nersesian, James Trayford, Tom Theuns, and Wouter Dobbels. 2019. “The Cosmic Spectral Energy Distribution in the EAGLE Simulation.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 484 (3): 4069–4082.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Baes, Maarten, Ana Trčka, Peter Camps, Angelos Nersesian, James Trayford, Tom Theuns, and Wouter Dobbels. 2019. “The Cosmic Spectral Energy Distribution in the EAGLE Simulation.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 484 (3): 4069–4082.
Vancouver
1.
Baes M, Trčka A, Camps P, Nersesian A, Trayford J, Theuns T, et al. The cosmic spectral energy distribution in the EAGLE simulation. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY. 2019;484(3):4069–82.
IEEE
[1]
M. Baes et al., “The cosmic spectral energy distribution in the EAGLE simulation,” MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 484, no. 3, pp. 4069–4082, 2019.
@article{8607435,
  abstract     = {The cosmic spectral energy distribution (CSED) is the total emissivity as a function of wavelength of galaxies in a given cosmic volume. We compare the observed CSED from the UV to the submm to that computed from the EAGLE (Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments) cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, post-processed with stellar population synthesis models and including dust radiative transfer using the SKIRT code. The agreement with the data is better than 0.15 dex over the entire wavelength range at redshift z = 0, except at UV wavelengths where the EAGLE model overestimates the observed CSED by up to a factor of 2. Global properties of the CSED as inferred from CIGALE fits, such as the stellar mass density, mean star formation density, and mean dust-to-stellar-mass ratio, agree to within better than 20 percent. At higher redshift, EAGLE increasingly underestimates the CSED at optical–NIR wavelengths with the FIR/submm emissivity underestimated by more than a factor of 5 by redshift z = 1. We believe that these differences are due to a combination of incompleteness of the EAGLE-SKIRT data base, the small simulation volume and the consequent lack of luminous galaxies, and our lack of knowledge on the evolution of the characteristics of the interstellar dust in galaxies. The impressive agreement between the simulated and observed CSED at lower z confirms that the combination of EAGLE and SKIRT dust processing yields a fairly realistic representation of the local Universe.
},
  author       = {Baes, Maarten and Trčka, Ana and Camps, Peter and Nersesian, Angelos and Trayford, James and Theuns, Tom and Dobbels, Wouter},
  issn         = {0035-8711},
  journal      = {MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY},
  keywords     = {hydrodynamics,radiative transfer,galaxies: evolution,cosmology: observations,MASS ASSEMBLY GAMA,STELLAR POPULATION SYNTHESIS,GALAXY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION,EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT,RADIATIVE-TRANSFER CODE,STAR-FORMATION HISTORY,HERSCHEL-ATLAS,DISC GALAXIES,DUST CONTENT,MU-M},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {4069--4082},
  title        = {The cosmic spectral energy distribution in the EAGLE simulation},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz302},
  volume       = {484},
  year         = {2019},
}

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