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Growth, sexual and bone development in a boy with bilateral anorchia under testosterone treatment guided by the development of his monozygotic twin

SARA VANDEWALLE (UGent) , Eva Van Caenegem, Margarita Craen (UGent) , Youri Taes (UGent) , Jean Kaufman (UGent) and Guy T'Sjoen (UGent)
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Abstract
Background: Sex steroids are essential for sexual maturation, linear growth and bone development. However, there is no consensus on the optimal timing, dosage and dosage interval of testosterone therapy to induce pubertal development and achieve a normal adult height and bone mass in children with hypogonadism. Case presentation: A monozygotic monochorial male twin pair, of which one boy was diagnosed with anorchia at birth due to testicular regression syndrome was followed from the age of 3 until the age of 18 years. Low dose testosterone substitution (testosterone esters 25 mg/2 weeks) was initiated in the affected twin based on the start of pubertal development in the healthy twin and then gradually increased accordingly. Both boys were followed until age 18 and were compared as regards to linear growth, sexual maturation, bone maturation and bone development. Before puberty induction both boys had a similar weight and height. During puberty, a slightly faster weight and height gain was observed in the affected twin. Both boys ended up however, with a similar and normal (near) adult height and weight and experienced a normal development of secondary sex characteristics. At the age of 17 and 18 years, bone mineral density, body composition and volumetric bone parameters at the forearm and calf were evaluated in both boys. The affected boy had a higher lean mass and muscle cross-sectional area. The bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and whole body was similar. Trabecular and cortical volumetric bone parameters were comparable. At one cortical site (proximal radius), however, the affected twin had a smaller periosteal and endosteal circumference with a thicker cortex. Conclusions: In conclusion, a low dose testosterone substitution in bilateral anorchia led to a normal onset of pubertal development and (near) adult height. Furthermore, there was no difference in bone mineral density at the age of 17 and 18 years.
Keywords
bilateral anorchia, body composition, bone, puberty, sex steroids, CONSTITUTIONAL DELAY, BODY-COMPOSITION, MALE-ADOLESCENTS, SIZE, MATURATION, STRENGTH, GEOMETRY, DENSITY, PUBERTY, MASS

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Chicago
VANDEWALLE, SARA, Eva Van Caenegem, Margarita Craen, Youri Taes, Jean Kaufman, and Guy T’Sjoen. 2018. “Growth, Sexual and Bone Development in a Boy with Bilateral Anorchia Under Testosterone Treatment Guided by the Development of His Monozygotic Twin.” Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism 31 (3): 361–367.
APA
VANDEWALLE, S., Van Caenegem, E., Craen, M., Taes, Y., Kaufman, J., & T’Sjoen, G. (2018). Growth, sexual and bone development in a boy with bilateral anorchia under testosterone treatment guided by the development of his monozygotic twin. JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM, 31(3), 361–367.
Vancouver
1.
VANDEWALLE S, Van Caenegem E, Craen M, Taes Y, Kaufman J, T’Sjoen G. Growth, sexual and bone development in a boy with bilateral anorchia under testosterone treatment guided by the development of his monozygotic twin. JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM. 2018;31(3):361–7.
MLA
VANDEWALLE, SARA et al. “Growth, Sexual and Bone Development in a Boy with Bilateral Anorchia Under Testosterone Treatment Guided by the Development of His Monozygotic Twin.” JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM 31.3 (2018): 361–367. Print.
@article{8607237,
  abstract     = {Background: Sex steroids are essential for sexual maturation, linear growth and bone development. However, there is no consensus on the optimal timing, dosage and dosage interval of testosterone therapy to induce pubertal development and achieve a normal adult height and bone mass in children with hypogonadism. 
Case presentation: A monozygotic monochorial male twin pair, of which one boy was diagnosed with anorchia at birth due to testicular regression syndrome was followed from the age of 3 until the age of 18 years. Low dose testosterone substitution (testosterone esters 25 mg/2 weeks) was initiated in the affected twin based on the start of pubertal development in the healthy twin and then gradually increased accordingly. Both boys were followed until age 18 and were compared as regards to linear growth, sexual maturation, bone maturation and bone development. Before puberty induction both boys had a similar weight and height. During puberty, a slightly faster weight and height gain was observed in the affected twin. Both boys ended up however, with a similar and normal (near) adult height and weight and experienced a normal development of secondary sex characteristics. At the age of 17 and 18 years, bone mineral density, body composition and volumetric bone parameters at the forearm and calf were evaluated in both boys. The affected boy had a higher lean mass and muscle cross-sectional area. The bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and whole body was similar. Trabecular and cortical volumetric bone parameters were comparable. At one cortical site (proximal radius), however, the affected twin had a smaller periosteal and endosteal circumference with a thicker cortex. 
Conclusions: In conclusion, a low dose testosterone substitution in bilateral anorchia led to a normal onset of pubertal development and (near) adult height. Furthermore, there was no difference in bone mineral density at the age of 17 and 18 years.},
  author       = {VANDEWALLE, SARA and Van Caenegem, Eva and Craen, Margarita and Taes, Youri and Kaufman, Jean and T'Sjoen, Guy},
  issn         = {0334-018X},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC ENDOCRINOLOGY \& METABOLISM},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {361--367},
  title        = {Growth, sexual and bone development in a boy with bilateral anorchia under testosterone treatment guided by the development of his monozygotic twin},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2017-0126},
  volume       = {31},
  year         = {2018},
}

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