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Development of culturally sensitive Pain Neuroscience Education for first-generation Turkish patients with chronic pain : a modified Delphi study

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Abstract
Background: Pain Neuroscience Education (PNE) has been recognized as an efficacious approach for chronic pain, but evidence for these findings have mainly been gathered in Caucasian patient populations. In recent years, it has been proposed that the treatment of pain and patient information materials should be culturally sensitive for different ethnic populations and cultures since cultural variations in pain beliefs and cognitions. Objectives: To culturally adapt PNE material for first-generation Turkish patients with chronic pain. Design: A modified Delphi study with three consecutive rounds. Method: A total of 10 participants (8 experts and 2 first-generation Turkish patients with chronic pain) were recruited for this study. Three online questionnaire rounds were conducted to synthesize the perspectives and to reach agreement on the suggested PNE materials. Results: Results on multiple-choice questions from the first round revealed that the compatibility of the visual information and the clarity of the message obtained lower scores. Examples, visual information (illustrations, pictures), and metaphors in the teaching materials and the home education leaflet were revised based on suggestions in Rounds 1 and 2. In Round 3, respondents reached an acceptable agreement level for the clinical usefulness of the PNE teaching materials and the home education material. Conclusions: Culturally sensitive PNE materials were produced for first-generation Turkish patients. Since the results of the present study only reveal perspectives of the experts, further validation of education materials may be required before they are recommended for Turkish patients in clinical practices.
Keywords
Chronic pain, Education, Migrants, Consensus, LOW-BACK-PAIN, LUMBAR RADICULOPATHY, MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN, PILATES EXERCISE, INTERVENTION, PEOPLE, SENSITIZATION, MANAGEMENT, BELIEFS, EXPLAIN

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Chicago
Orhan, Ceren, Barbara Cagnie, An Favoreel, Eveline Van Looveren, Umit Akel, Naziru Bashir Mukhtar, Kayleigh De Meulemeester, Roselien Pas, Dorine Lenoir, and Mira Meeus. 2019. “Development of Culturally Sensitive Pain Neuroscience Education for First-generation Turkish Patients with Chronic Pain : a Modified Delphi Study.” Musculoskeletal Science and Practice 39: 1–9.
APA
Orhan, C., Cagnie, B., Favoreel, A., Van Looveren, E., Akel, U., Mukhtar, N. B., De Meulemeester, K., et al. (2019). Development of culturally sensitive Pain Neuroscience Education for first-generation Turkish patients with chronic pain : a modified Delphi study. MUSCULOSKELETAL SCIENCE AND PRACTICE, 39, 1–9.
Vancouver
1.
Orhan C, Cagnie B, Favoreel A, Van Looveren E, Akel U, Mukhtar NB, et al. Development of culturally sensitive Pain Neuroscience Education for first-generation Turkish patients with chronic pain : a modified Delphi study. MUSCULOSKELETAL SCIENCE AND PRACTICE. 2019;39:1–9.
MLA
Orhan, Ceren et al. “Development of Culturally Sensitive Pain Neuroscience Education for First-generation Turkish Patients with Chronic Pain : a Modified Delphi Study.” MUSCULOSKELETAL SCIENCE AND PRACTICE 39 (2019): 1–9. Print.
@article{8607234,
  abstract     = {Background: Pain Neuroscience Education (PNE) has been recognized as an efficacious approach for chronic pain, but evidence for these findings have mainly been gathered in Caucasian patient populations. In recent years, it has been proposed that the treatment of pain and patient information materials should be culturally sensitive for different ethnic populations and cultures since cultural variations in pain beliefs and cognitions. 
Objectives: To culturally adapt PNE material for first-generation Turkish patients with chronic pain. 
Design: A modified Delphi study with three consecutive rounds. 
Method: A total of 10 participants (8 experts and 2 first-generation Turkish patients with chronic pain) were recruited for this study. Three online questionnaire rounds were conducted to synthesize the perspectives and to reach agreement on the suggested PNE materials. 
Results: Results on multiple-choice questions from the first round revealed that the compatibility of the visual information and the clarity of the message obtained lower scores. Examples, visual information (illustrations, pictures), and metaphors in the teaching materials and the home education leaflet were revised based on suggestions in Rounds 1 and 2. In Round 3, respondents reached an acceptable agreement level for the clinical usefulness of the PNE teaching materials and the home education material. 
Conclusions: Culturally sensitive PNE materials were produced for first-generation Turkish patients. Since the results of the present study only reveal perspectives of the experts, further validation of education materials may be required before they are recommended for Turkish patients in clinical practices.},
  author       = {Orhan, Ceren and Cagnie, Barbara and Favoreel, An and Van Looveren, Eveline and Akel, Umit and Mukhtar, Naziru Bashir and De Meulemeester, Kayleigh and Pas, Roselien and Lenoir, Dorine and Meeus, Mira},
  issn         = {2468-7812},
  journal      = {MUSCULOSKELETAL SCIENCE AND PRACTICE},
  keywords     = {Chronic pain,Education,Migrants,Consensus,LOW-BACK-PAIN,LUMBAR RADICULOPATHY,MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN,PILATES EXERCISE,INTERVENTION,PEOPLE,SENSITIZATION,MANAGEMENT,BELIEFS,EXPLAIN},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {1--9},
  title        = {Development of culturally sensitive Pain Neuroscience Education for first-generation Turkish patients with chronic pain : a modified Delphi study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msksp.2018.10.007},
  volume       = {39},
  year         = {2019},
}

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