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The impact of instruction- and experience-based evaluative learning on IAT performance : a quad model perspective

(2020) COGNITION & EMOTION. 34(1). p.21-41
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Abstract
Learning procedures such as mere exposure, evaluative conditioning, and approach/avoidance training have been used to establish evaluative responses as measured by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). In this paper, we used the Quad model to disentangle the processes driving IAT responses instantiated by these evaluative learning procedures. Half of the participants experienced one of these three procedures whereas the other half only received instructions about how the procedure would work. Across three experiments (total n = 4231), we examined the extent to which instruction-based versus experience-based evaluative learning impacted Quad estimates of the Activation of evaluative information in IAT responses. Relative to a control condition, both instruction- and experience-based evaluative learning procedures influenced Activation. Moreover, and contrary to what prevailing models of implicit evaluations would predict, in no instance did experience-based procedures influence (positive or negative) Activation more strongly than instruction-based procedures. This was true for analyses which combined procedures and also when testing all three procedures individually. Implications for the processes that mediate evaluative learning effects and the conditions under which those processes operate are discussed.
Keywords
Attitudes, IAT, Quad modelling, learning, implicit evaluations, IMPLICIT ASSOCIATION TEST, PROCESSING TREE MODELS, SELF-REGULATION, ATTITUDES, PREJUDICE, MALLEABILITY, MECHANISMS, PSYCHOLOGY, COMPONENTS, COGNITION

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MLA
Smith, Colin Tucker, et al. “The Impact of Instruction- and Experience-Based Evaluative Learning on IAT Performance : A Quad Model Perspective.” COGNITION & EMOTION, vol. 34, no. 1, 2020, pp. 21–41.
APA
Smith, C. T., Calanchini, J., Hughes, S. J., Van Dessel, P., & De Houwer, J. (2020). The impact of instruction- and experience-based evaluative learning on IAT performance : a quad model perspective. COGNITION & EMOTION, 34(1), 21–41.
Chicago author-date
Smith, Colin Tucker, Jimmy Calanchini, Sean Joseph Hughes, Pieter Van Dessel, and Jan De Houwer. 2020. “The Impact of Instruction- and Experience-Based Evaluative Learning on IAT Performance : A Quad Model Perspective.” COGNITION & EMOTION 34 (1): 21–41.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Smith, Colin Tucker, Jimmy Calanchini, Sean Joseph Hughes, Pieter Van Dessel, and Jan De Houwer. 2020. “The Impact of Instruction- and Experience-Based Evaluative Learning on IAT Performance : A Quad Model Perspective.” COGNITION & EMOTION 34 (1): 21–41.
Vancouver
1.
Smith CT, Calanchini J, Hughes SJ, Van Dessel P, De Houwer J. The impact of instruction- and experience-based evaluative learning on IAT performance : a quad model perspective. COGNITION & EMOTION. 2020;34(1):21–41.
IEEE
[1]
C. T. Smith, J. Calanchini, S. J. Hughes, P. Van Dessel, and J. De Houwer, “The impact of instruction- and experience-based evaluative learning on IAT performance : a quad model perspective,” COGNITION & EMOTION, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 21–41, 2020.
@article{8606981,
  abstract     = {Learning procedures such as mere exposure, evaluative conditioning, and approach/avoidance training have been used to establish evaluative responses as measured by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). In this paper, we used the Quad model to disentangle the processes driving IAT responses instantiated by these evaluative learning procedures. Half of the participants experienced one of these three procedures whereas the other half only received instructions about how the procedure would work. Across three experiments (total n = 4231), we examined the extent to which instruction-based versus experience-based evaluative learning impacted Quad estimates of the Activation of evaluative information in IAT responses. Relative to a control condition, both instruction- and experience-based evaluative learning procedures influenced Activation. Moreover, and contrary to what prevailing models of implicit evaluations would predict, in no instance did experience-based procedures influence (positive or negative) Activation more strongly than instruction-based procedures. This was true for analyses which combined procedures and also when testing all three procedures individually. Implications for the processes that mediate evaluative learning effects and the conditions under which those processes operate are discussed.},
  author       = {Smith, Colin Tucker and Calanchini, Jimmy and Hughes, Sean Joseph and Van Dessel, Pieter and De Houwer, Jan},
  issn         = {0269-9931},
  journal      = {COGNITION & EMOTION},
  keywords     = {Attitudes,IAT,Quad modelling,learning,implicit evaluations,IMPLICIT ASSOCIATION TEST,PROCESSING TREE MODELS,SELF-REGULATION,ATTITUDES,PREJUDICE,MALLEABILITY,MECHANISMS,PSYCHOLOGY,COMPONENTS,COGNITION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {21--41},
  title        = {The impact of instruction- and experience-based evaluative learning on IAT performance : a quad model perspective},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2019.1592118},
  volume       = {34},
  year         = {2020},
}

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