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Evolution of protein-bound uremic toxins indoxyl sulphate and p-cresyl sulphate in acute kidney injury

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Abstract
BACKGROUND: There is a gradual increase in serum concentrations of protein-bound colon-derived uremic toxins indoxyl sulphate (IxS) and p-cresyl sulphate (pCS) as chronic kidney disease (CKD) progresses. In acute kidney injury (AKI), up till now, the retention pattern has not been studied. METHODS: In this study, 194 adult patients admitted with sepsis to the intensive care unit were included. IxS, pCS and serum creatinine (sCrea) were quantified at inclusion (D0) and at day 4, unless follow-up ended earlier (Dend). RESULTS: Serum levels of sCrea (P < 0.001), IxS (P < 0.001) and pCS (P < 0.05) were higher in patients with AKI according to RIFLE classification at D0. In contrast with sCrea, IxS and pCS levels only increased from stage I (IxS) and F (pCS) on. When grouped according to evolution in RIFLE class from D0 to Dend, all solute concentrations were higher (P < 0.001) in the group with unfavourable evolution. In this group, there was a marked rise in sCrea (P < 0.001), a moderate one for pCS (P < 0.05), but no change for IxS (P = 0.112). There was a decrease (P < 0.001) of all solute concentrations in the group with favourable evolution. Comparing AKI with CKD patients matched for sCrea, total levels of both IxS and pCS were higher (P < 0.01) in patients with CKD. CONCLUSIONS: Although concentrations of IxS and pCS both tend to rise in sepsis patients with AKI, their evolution does not conform with that of sCrea. For the same level of sCrea, IxS and pCS concentrations are lower in AKI compared with CKD.
Keywords
AKI, Indoxyl sulphate, Sepsis, Uremic toxins, p-Cresyl sulphate

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Chicago
Veldeman, Laurens, Jill Vanmassenhove, Wim Van Biesen, ZA Massy, S Liabeuf, Griet Glorieux, and Raymond Vanholder. 2019. “Evolution of Protein-bound Uremic Toxins Indoxyl Sulphate and P-cresyl Sulphate in Acute Kidney Injury.” International Urology and Nephrology 51 (2): 293–302.
APA
Veldeman, L., Vanmassenhove, J., Van Biesen, W., Massy, Z., Liabeuf, S., Glorieux, G., & Vanholder, R. (2019). Evolution of protein-bound uremic toxins indoxyl sulphate and p-cresyl sulphate in acute kidney injury. International urology and nephrology, 51(2), 293–302.
Vancouver
1.
Veldeman L, Vanmassenhove J, Van Biesen W, Massy Z, Liabeuf S, Glorieux G, et al. Evolution of protein-bound uremic toxins indoxyl sulphate and p-cresyl sulphate in acute kidney injury. International urology and nephrology. 2019;51(2):293–302.
MLA
Veldeman, Laurens et al. “Evolution of Protein-bound Uremic Toxins Indoxyl Sulphate and P-cresyl Sulphate in Acute Kidney Injury.” International urology and nephrology 51.2 (2019): 293–302. Print.
@article{8605775,
  abstract     = {BACKGROUND: 

There is a gradual increase in serum concentrations of protein-bound colon-derived uremic toxins indoxyl sulphate (IxS) and p-cresyl sulphate (pCS) as chronic kidney disease (CKD) progresses. In acute kidney injury (AKI), up till now, the retention pattern has not been studied.

METHODS: 

In this study, 194 adult patients admitted with sepsis to the intensive care unit were included. IxS, pCS and serum creatinine (sCrea) were quantified at inclusion (D0) and at day 4, unless follow-up ended earlier (Dend).

RESULTS: 

Serum levels of sCrea (P\,{\textlangle}\,0.001), IxS (P\,{\textlangle}\,0.001) and pCS (P\,{\textlangle}\,0.05) were higher in patients with AKI according to RIFLE classification at D0. In contrast with sCrea, IxS and pCS levels only increased from stage I (IxS) and F (pCS) on. When grouped according to evolution in RIFLE class from D0 to Dend, all solute concentrations were higher (P\,{\textlangle}\,0.001) in the group with unfavourable evolution. In this group, there was a marked rise in sCrea (P\,{\textlangle}\,0.001), a moderate one for pCS (P\,{\textlangle}\,0.05), but no change for IxS (P\,=\,0.112). There was a decrease (P\,{\textlangle}\,0.001) of all solute concentrations in the group with favourable evolution. Comparing AKI with CKD patients matched for sCrea, total levels of both IxS and pCS were higher (P\,{\textlangle}\,0.01) in patients with CKD.

CONCLUSIONS: 

Although concentrations of IxS and pCS both tend to rise in sepsis patients with AKI, their evolution does not conform with that of sCrea. For the same level of sCrea, IxS and pCS concentrations are lower in AKI compared with CKD.
},
  author       = {Veldeman, Laurens and Vanmassenhove, Jill and Van Biesen, Wim and Massy, ZA and Liabeuf, S and Glorieux, Griet and Vanholder, Raymond},
  journal      = {International urology and nephrology},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {293--302},
  title        = {Evolution of protein-bound uremic toxins indoxyl sulphate and p-cresyl sulphate in acute kidney injury},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-018-2056-x},
  volume       = {51},
  year         = {2019},
}

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