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Prevalence, risk factors and associated adverse pregnancy outcome of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women in Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo.

(2019)
Author
Organization
Abstract
Background. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis of the healthy lactobacilli-dominated vaginal microbiome and is the most common gynecological condition in women of reproductive age. BV is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth (the leading cause of neonatal mortality) and increased risk for sexually transmitted infections such as HIV. In Sub-Saharan Africa, a region with the highest rates of HIV mortality and preterm birth, there is a lack of epidemiological data on BV. In current study, we aimed at determining the BV prevalence, the associated risk factors and the adverse pregnancy outcomes of BV in a population of pregnant women from Bukavu, South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methodology. In a prospective hospital-based in Bukavu (South Kivu, DRC), we followed a total of 533 women during pregnancy. BV was assessed by means of Nugent scoring of Gram-stained vaginal smears. A complete clinical examination of pregnant women and their newborns was performed. Women were investigated for urogenital infections and questionnaires were used obtain sociodemographic data, data on vaginal hygiene, sexual behavior and reproductive health history. Multivariate regression models were used to detect risk factors for BV and to identify adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with BV. Results. The BV prevalence was 26.8% (95% CI, 23.1-30.8). BV was associated with the presence of Candida (assessed by microscopy of Gram-stained smears) (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.33), sexual risk behavior such as extramarital affairs of the husband (aOR 2.67), intravaginal washing with substances other than water (aOR 2.51) and low birth weight (<2500g) (aOR 3.24). Conclusions. BV is highly prevalent in pregnant women in Bukavu, DRC and is an independent risk for low birth weight. The identified modifiable risk factors for BV in current population offer options for the prevention of BV by advocating for behavioral change. Prevention of low birth weight by prevention of BV in pregnancy might decrease neonatal mortality rates in DRC

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Chicago
De Vulder, Annelies, Guy Mulinganya, Jerina Boelens, Geert Claeys, Erick Hendwa, Yvette Kujirakwinja, Freddy Kampara, et al. 2019. “Prevalence, Risk Factors and Associated Adverse Pregnancy Outcome of Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnant Women in Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo. .” In .
APA
De Vulder, A., Mulinganya, G., Boelens, J., Claeys, G., Hendwa, E., Kujirakwinja, Y., Kampara, F., et al. (2019). Prevalence, risk factors and associated adverse pregnancy outcome of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women in Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo. . Presented at the European Congress of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases .
Vancouver
1.
De Vulder A, Mulinganya G, Boelens J, Claeys G, Hendwa E, Kujirakwinja Y, et al. Prevalence, risk factors and associated adverse pregnancy outcome of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women in Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo. . 2019.
MLA
De Vulder, Annelies et al. “Prevalence, Risk Factors and Associated Adverse Pregnancy Outcome of Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnant Women in Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo. .” 2019. Print.
@inproceedings{8605717,
  abstract     = {Background. 
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis of the healthy lactobacilli-dominated vaginal
microbiome and is the most common gynecological condition in women of reproductive age. BV is
associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth (the leading cause of neonatal
mortality) and increased risk for sexually transmitted infections such as HIV. In Sub-Saharan Africa, a
region with the highest rates of HIV mortality and preterm birth, there is a lack of epidemiological data
on BV. In current study, we aimed at determining the BV prevalence, the associated risk factors and
the adverse pregnancy outcomes of BV in a population of pregnant women from Bukavu, South Kivu,
Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Methodology. 
In a prospective hospital-based in Bukavu (South Kivu, DRC), we followed a total of
533 women during pregnancy. BV was assessed by means of Nugent scoring of Gram-stained vaginal
smears. A complete clinical examination of pregnant women and their newborns was performed.
Women were investigated for urogenital infections and questionnaires were used obtain
sociodemographic data, data on vaginal hygiene, sexual behavior and reproductive health history.
Multivariate regression models were used to detect risk factors for BV and to identify adverse
pregnancy outcomes associated with BV.

Results. 
The BV prevalence was 26.8\% (95\% CI, 23.1-30.8). BV was associated with the presence of
Candida (assessed by microscopy of Gram-stained smears) (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.33), sexual
risk behavior such as extramarital affairs of the husband (aOR 2.67), intravaginal washing with
substances other than water (aOR 2.51) and low birth weight ({\textlangle}2500g) (aOR 3.24).

Conclusions. 
BV is highly prevalent in pregnant women in Bukavu, DRC and is an independent risk
for low birth weight. The identified modifiable risk factors for BV in current population offer options for
the prevention of BV by advocating for behavioral change. Prevention of low birth weight by prevention
of BV in pregnancy might decrease neonatal mortality rates in DRC},
  author       = {De Vulder, Annelies and Mulinganya, Guy and Boelens, Jerina and Claeys, Geert and Hendwa, Erick and Kujirakwinja, Yvette and Kampara, Freddy and Mongane, Jules and Mubalama, Innocent and Vaneechoutte, Mario and Bisimwa, Ghislain and Callens, Steven and Cools, Piet},
  location     = {Amsterdam, The Netherlands},
  title        = {Prevalence, risk factors and associated adverse pregnancy outcome of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women in Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo. },
  year         = {2019},
}