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Novel Cardinium strains in non-marine ostracod (Crustacea) hosts from natural populations

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Abstract
Endosymbiotic bacteria are known from many metazoan taxa, where they manipulate host biology and reproduction. Here, we used classic PCR amplification and direct DNA sequencing with universal primers for four different endosymbionts to test for their presence in more than 300 specimens of three recent non-marine ostracod superfamilies from different geographic areas and aquatic habitats. We verified these results with "high throughput" amplicon sequencing of 16S of nine selected specimens and evolutionary placement algorithms. The phylogenetic position of endosymbionts detected in ostracod hosts was compared to known endosymbionts from other metazoans. While Wolbachia, Spiroplasma and Rickettsia are absent, we find evidence for the general presence of Cardinium bacteria in natural populations of various non-marine ostracod species. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on Cardinium 16S data and estimates of genetic distances both indicate that Cardinium from ostracods are distantly related to Cardinium from Diptera and Nematoda but represent novel strains with a monophyletic origin. Cardinium bacteria from different ostracod hosts have genetic distances of up to 3.8%, providing evidence against recent and frequent horizontal transmissions amongst the three ostracod super-families. High throughput sequencing reveals more than 400 different 16S amplicon sequence variants in the investigated ostracods as well as the presence of different Cardinium strains within individual Eucypris virens and Heterocypris hosts. These results call for future, more in-depth investigations. Mapping Cardinium infections on COI trees of non-marine ostracod hosts shows that the occurrence of these endosymbionts is not linked to genetic species identity or phylogenetic host groups and, except for one ostracod morphospecies, prevalence never reaches 100%.
Keywords
:Endosymbiont, Phylogenetics, Metagenomics, 16S, Freshwater KeyWords Plus:MALE-KILLING WOLBACHIA, CYTOPLASMIC INCOMPATIBILITY, MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA, SYMBIONT CARDINIUM, BACTERIAL SYMBIONT, CRYPTIC DIVERSITY, SELECTIVE SWEEPS, ENDOSYMBIONT, EVOLUTION, PERFORMANCE

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Citation

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MLA
Schön, Isa et al. “Novel Cardinium Strains in Non-marine Ostracod (Crustacea) Hosts from Natural Populations.” MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS AND EVOLUTION 130 (2019): 406–415. Print.
APA
Schön, I., Kamiya, T., Van den Berghe, T., Van den Broecke, L., & Martens, K. (2019). Novel Cardinium strains in non-marine ostracod (Crustacea) hosts from natural populations. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS AND EVOLUTION, 130, 406–415.
Chicago author-date
Schön, Isa, Takahiro Kamiya, Tijs Van den Berghe, Lynn Van den Broecke, and Koenraad Martens. 2019. “Novel Cardinium Strains in Non-marine Ostracod (Crustacea) Hosts from Natural Populations.” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 130: 406–415.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Schön, Isa, Takahiro Kamiya, Tijs Van den Berghe, Lynn Van den Broecke, and Koenraad Martens. 2019. “Novel Cardinium Strains in Non-marine Ostracod (Crustacea) Hosts from Natural Populations.” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 130: 406–415.
Vancouver
1.
Schön I, Kamiya T, Van den Berghe T, Van den Broecke L, Martens K. Novel Cardinium strains in non-marine ostracod (Crustacea) hosts from natural populations. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS AND EVOLUTION. 2019;130:406–15.
IEEE
[1]
I. Schön, T. Kamiya, T. Van den Berghe, L. Van den Broecke, and K. Martens, “Novel Cardinium strains in non-marine ostracod (Crustacea) hosts from natural populations,” MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS AND EVOLUTION, vol. 130, pp. 406–415, 2019.
@article{8605637,
  abstract     = {Endosymbiotic bacteria are known from many metazoan taxa, where they manipulate host biology and reproduction. Here, we used classic PCR amplification and direct DNA sequencing with universal primers for four different endosymbionts to test for their presence in more than 300 specimens of three recent non-marine ostracod superfamilies from different geographic areas and aquatic habitats. We verified these results with "high throughput" amplicon sequencing of 16S of nine selected specimens and evolutionary placement algorithms. The phylogenetic position of endosymbionts detected in ostracod hosts was compared to known endosymbionts from other metazoans. While Wolbachia, Spiroplasma and Rickettsia are absent, we find evidence for the general presence of Cardinium bacteria in natural populations of various non-marine ostracod species. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on Cardinium 16S data and estimates of genetic distances both indicate that Cardinium from ostracods are distantly related to Cardinium from Diptera and Nematoda but represent novel strains with a monophyletic origin. Cardinium bacteria from different ostracod hosts have genetic distances of up to 3.8%, providing evidence against recent and frequent horizontal transmissions amongst the three ostracod super-families. High throughput sequencing reveals more than 400 different 16S amplicon sequence variants in the investigated ostracods as well as the presence of different Cardinium strains within individual Eucypris virens and Heterocypris hosts. These results call for future, more in-depth investigations. Mapping Cardinium infections on COI trees of non-marine ostracod hosts shows that the occurrence of these endosymbionts is not linked to genetic species identity or phylogenetic host groups and, except for one ostracod morphospecies, prevalence never reaches 100%.},
  author       = {Schön, Isa and Kamiya, Takahiro and Van den Berghe, Tijs and Van den Broecke, Lynn and Martens, Koenraad},
  issn         = {1055-7903},
  journal      = {MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS AND EVOLUTION},
  keywords     = {:Endosymbiont,Phylogenetics,Metagenomics,16S,Freshwater   KeyWords Plus:MALE-KILLING WOLBACHIA,CYTOPLASMIC INCOMPATIBILITY,MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA,SYMBIONT CARDINIUM,BACTERIAL SYMBIONT,CRYPTIC DIVERSITY,SELECTIVE SWEEPS,ENDOSYMBIONT,EVOLUTION,PERFORMANCE},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {406--415},
  title        = {Novel Cardinium strains in non-marine ostracod (Crustacea) hosts from natural populations},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2018.09.008},
  volume       = {130},
  year         = {2019},
}

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