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A longitudinal analysis of the vaginal microbiota and vaginal immune mediators in women from sub-Saharan Africa

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Abstract
In cross-sectional studies increased vaginal bacterial diversity has been associated with vaginal inflammation which can be detrimental for health. We describe longitudinal changes at 5 visits over 8 weeks in vaginal microbiota and immune mediators in African women. Women (N=40) with a normal Nugent score at all visits had a stable lactobacilli dominated microbiota with prevailing Lactobacillus iners. Presence of prostate-specific antigen (proxy for recent sex) and being amenorrhoeic (due to progestin-injectable use), but not recent vaginal cleansing, were significantly associated with microbiota diversity and inflammation (controlled for menstrual cycle and other confounders). Women (N=40) with incident bacterial vaginosis (Nugent 7-10) had significantly lower concentrations of lactobacilli and higher concentrations of Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, and Prevotella bivia, at the incident visit and when concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta, IL-12p70) were increased and IP-10 and elafin were decreased. A higher 'composite-qPCR vaginal-health-score' was directly associated with decreased concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1 alpha, IL-8, IL-12(p70)) and increased IP-10. This longitudinal study confirms the inflammatory nature of vaginal dysbiosis and its association with recent vaginal sex and progestin-injectable use. A potential role for proinflammatory mediators and IP-10 in combination with the vaginal-health-score as predictive biomarkers for vaginal dysbiosis merits further investigation.
Keywords
FEMALE GENITAL-TRACT, BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS, CYTOKINE BIOMARKERS, INNATE IMMUNITY, HIV, EXPRESSION, CONTRACEPTION, ASSOCIATIONS, CHEMOKINES, MARKERS

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MLA
Jespers, Vicky, et al. “A Longitudinal Analysis of the Vaginal Microbiota and Vaginal Immune Mediators in Women from Sub-Saharan Africa.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 7, 2017.
APA
Jespers, V., Kyongo, J., Joseph, S., Hardy, L., Cools, P., Crucitti, T., … van de Wijgert, J. H. (2017). A longitudinal analysis of the vaginal microbiota and vaginal immune mediators in women from sub-Saharan Africa. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 7.
Chicago author-date
Jespers, Vicky, Jordan Kyongo, Sarah Joseph, Liselotte Hardy, Piet Cools, Tania Crucitti, Mary Mwaura, et al. 2017. “A Longitudinal Analysis of the Vaginal Microbiota and Vaginal Immune Mediators in Women from Sub-Saharan Africa.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 7.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Jespers, Vicky, Jordan Kyongo, Sarah Joseph, Liselotte Hardy, Piet Cools, Tania Crucitti, Mary Mwaura, Gilles Ndayisaba, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Jozefien Buyze, Guido Vanham, and Janneke HHM van de Wijgert. 2017. “A Longitudinal Analysis of the Vaginal Microbiota and Vaginal Immune Mediators in Women from Sub-Saharan Africa.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 7.
Vancouver
1.
Jespers V, Kyongo J, Joseph S, Hardy L, Cools P, Crucitti T, et al. A longitudinal analysis of the vaginal microbiota and vaginal immune mediators in women from sub-Saharan Africa. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. 2017;7.
IEEE
[1]
V. Jespers et al., “A longitudinal analysis of the vaginal microbiota and vaginal immune mediators in women from sub-Saharan Africa,” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 7, 2017.
@article{8605371,
  abstract     = {In cross-sectional studies increased vaginal bacterial diversity has been associated with vaginal inflammation which can be detrimental for health. We describe longitudinal changes at 5 visits over 8 weeks in vaginal microbiota and immune mediators in African women. Women (N=40) with a normal Nugent score at all visits had a stable lactobacilli dominated microbiota with prevailing Lactobacillus iners. Presence of prostate-specific antigen (proxy for recent sex) and being amenorrhoeic (due to progestin-injectable use), but not recent vaginal cleansing, were significantly associated with microbiota diversity and inflammation (controlled for menstrual cycle and other confounders). Women (N=40) with incident bacterial vaginosis (Nugent 7-10) had significantly lower concentrations of lactobacilli and higher concentrations of Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, and Prevotella bivia, at the incident visit and when concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta, IL-12p70) were increased and IP-10 and elafin were decreased. A higher 'composite-qPCR vaginal-health-score' was directly associated with decreased concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1 alpha, IL-8, IL-12(p70)) and increased IP-10. This longitudinal study confirms the inflammatory nature of vaginal dysbiosis and its association with recent vaginal sex and progestin-injectable use. A potential role for proinflammatory mediators and IP-10 in combination with the vaginal-health-score as predictive biomarkers for vaginal dysbiosis merits further investigation.},
  articleno    = {11974},
  author       = {Jespers, Vicky and Kyongo, Jordan and Joseph, Sarah and Hardy, Liselotte and Cools, Piet and Crucitti, Tania and Mwaura, Mary and Ndayisaba, Gilles and Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead and Buyze, Jozefien and Vanham, Guido and van de Wijgert, Janneke HHM},
  issn         = {2045-2322},
  journal      = {SCIENTIFIC REPORTS},
  keywords     = {FEMALE GENITAL-TRACT,BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS,CYTOKINE BIOMARKERS,INNATE IMMUNITY,HIV,EXPRESSION,CONTRACEPTION,ASSOCIATIONS,CHEMOKINES,MARKERS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {13},
  title        = {A longitudinal analysis of the vaginal microbiota and vaginal immune mediators in women from sub-Saharan Africa},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-12198-6},
  volume       = {7},
  year         = {2017},
}

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