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Membrane electrolysis for the removal of Mg2+ and Ca2+ from lithium rich brines

(2019) WATER RESEARCH. 154. p.117-124
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Abstract
Lithium is today an essential raw material for renewable energy technologies and electric mobility. Continental brines as present in the Lithium Triangle are the most abundant and the easiest to exploit lithium sources. Lithium is present in diluted concentrations together with different ions, and it is imperative to fully remove both magnesium and calcium before lithium carbonate can be precipitated. Here we use membrane electrolysis as a novel method to generate hydroxyl groups in situ in a two-chamber electrochemical cell with a side crystallizer, omitting the need for chemical addition and not leading to substantial loss of lithium rich brine. Batch electrolysis experiments fully removed more than 99.99% of both Mg2+ and Ca2+ for three different native South-American brines treated at current densities ranging from 27 to 350 A m(-2) (final concentrations were below ICP detection limit: < 0.05 mg L-1 ), For a brine containing 3090 mg L-1 of Mg-2 + and 685 mgL(-1) of Ca2+, 62 kWh m(-3) are needed for the full removal of both cations when a current density of 223 A m(-2) is employed. Most importantly, the Li+ concentration in the brine is not affected. The removed cations are precipitated as Mg(OH)(2) and Ca(OH)(2). Our process has the potential to simultaneously recover lithium, magnesium, and calcium compounds, minimizing waste production. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords
Ecological Modelling, Waste Management and Disposal, Pollution, Water Science and Technology, Sustainable mining, Hydrometallurgy, Zero-waste, Magnesium hydroxide, Anion exchange membrane, Raw materials, MAGNESIUM-HYDROXIDE NANOPARTICLES, LI EXTRACTION, RECOVERY, LIFEPO4/FEPO4, BATTERIES, STORAGE

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Citation

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Chicago
Díaz Nieto, César H, Noelia A Palacios, Kristof Verbeeck, Antonin Prévoteau, Korneel Rabaey, and Victoria Flexer. 2019. “Membrane Electrolysis for the Removal of Mg2+ and Ca2+ from Lithium Rich Brines.” Water Research 154: 117–124.
APA
Díaz Nieto, C. H., Palacios, N. A., Verbeeck, K., Prévoteau, A., Rabaey, K., & Flexer, V. (2019). Membrane electrolysis for the removal of Mg2+ and Ca2+ from lithium rich brines. WATER RESEARCH, 154, 117–124.
Vancouver
1.
Díaz Nieto CH, Palacios NA, Verbeeck K, Prévoteau A, Rabaey K, Flexer V. Membrane electrolysis for the removal of Mg2+ and Ca2+ from lithium rich brines. WATER RESEARCH. 2019;154:117–24.
MLA
Díaz Nieto, César H et al. “Membrane Electrolysis for the Removal of Mg2+ and Ca2+ from Lithium Rich Brines.” WATER RESEARCH 154 (2019): 117–124. Print.
@article{8605223,
  abstract     = {Lithium is today an essential raw material for renewable energy technologies and electric mobility. Continental brines as present in the Lithium Triangle are the most abundant and the easiest to exploit lithium sources. Lithium is present in diluted concentrations together with different ions, and it is imperative to fully remove both magnesium and calcium before lithium carbonate can be precipitated. Here we use membrane electrolysis as a novel method to generate hydroxyl groups in situ in a two-chamber electrochemical cell with a side crystallizer, omitting the need for chemical addition and not leading to substantial loss of lithium rich brine. Batch electrolysis experiments fully removed more than 99.99% of both Mg2+ and Ca2+ for three different native South-American brines treated at current densities ranging from 27 to 350 A m(-2) (final concentrations were below ICP detection limit: < 0.05 mg L-1 ), For a brine containing 3090 mg L-1 of Mg-2 + and 685 mgL(-1) of Ca2+, 62 kWh m(-3) are needed for the full removal of both cations when a current density of 223 A m(-2) is employed. Most importantly, the Li+ concentration in the brine is not affected. The removed cations are precipitated as Mg(OH)(2) and Ca(OH)(2). Our process has the potential to simultaneously recover lithium, magnesium, and calcium compounds, minimizing waste production. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
  author       = {Díaz Nieto, César H and Palacios, Noelia A and Verbeeck, Kristof and Prévoteau, Antonin and Rabaey, Korneel and Flexer, Victoria},
  issn         = {0043-1354},
  journal      = {WATER RESEARCH},
  keywords     = {Ecological Modelling,Waste Management and Disposal,Pollution,Water Science and Technology,Sustainable mining,Hydrometallurgy,Zero-waste,Magnesium hydroxide,Anion exchange membrane,Raw materials,MAGNESIUM-HYDROXIDE NANOPARTICLES,LI EXTRACTION,RECOVERY,LIFEPO4/FEPO4,BATTERIES,STORAGE},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {117--124},
  title        = {Membrane electrolysis for the removal of Mg2+ and Ca2+ from lithium rich brines},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.01.050},
  volume       = {154},
  year         = {2019},
}

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