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Pod storage with roasting : a tool to diversifying the flavor profiles of dark chocolates produced from ‘bulk’ cocoa beans? (part I: aroma profiling of chocolates)

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Abstract
The impact of pod storage (PS) and roasting temperature (RT) on the aroma profiles of dark chocolates were evaluated. Cocoa liquor samples comprised of ten different combinations of PS and RT, whilst keeping the roasting time fixed at 35 min. Additionally, commercial cocoa liquors from renowned origins (Ecuador, Madagascar, Venezuela, Vietnam, Ivory Coast and Ghana) were acquired for comparison. From these, 70% dark chocolates were produced under the same conditions after which they were subjected to headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC–MS) analysis. Although both PS and RT were found to influence the aroma volatile concentrations, the impact of RT over PS seemed to be greater. An agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) of all chocolates on the basis of their aroma profiles revealed a similar impact as earlier observed, where major clustering of the chocolates was in accordance with the intensity of the roasting process applied. However, within each group, the dissimilarities owing to PS among the chocolates was clearly depicted. Comparatively, chocolates with low (100–120 °C), instead of moderate to high (135–160 °C) RT's, rather showed a low dissimilarity with those from the commercial cocoa liquors of the different origins. Although from the same beans, the diversity of aroma profiles of these chocolates as well as the similitude of some treatments to some chocolates from commercial grade cocoa liquors, unequivocally underscores the possibility for steering diverse distinct flavors from ‘bulk’ cocoa through PS and roasting, with beneficial implications, both from an application and an economic point of view.
Keywords
Aroma profile, Chocolate, Cocoa, HS-SPME-GC-MS, Pod storage, Roasting, THEOBROMA-CACAO, FERMENTATION, ACIDIFICATION, TEMPERATURE, VOLATILES, QUALITY, TIME

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MLA
Hinneh, Michael, et al. “Pod Storage with Roasting : A Tool to Diversifying the Flavor Profiles of Dark Chocolates Produced from ‘bulk’ Cocoa Beans? (Part I: Aroma Profiling of Chocolates).” FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL, vol. 119, 2019, pp. 84–98.
APA
Hinneh, M., Abotsi, E. E., Van de Walle, D., Tzompa Sosa, D. A., De Winne, A., Simonis, J., … Dewettinck, K. (2019). Pod storage with roasting : a tool to diversifying the flavor profiles of dark chocolates produced from “bulk” cocoa beans? (part I: aroma profiling of chocolates). FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL, 119, 84–98.
Chicago author-date
Hinneh, Michael, Enoch Enorkplim Abotsi, Davy Van de Walle, Daylan Amelia Tzompa Sosa, Ann De Winne, Julien Simonis, Kathy Messens, et al. 2019. “Pod Storage with Roasting : A Tool to Diversifying the Flavor Profiles of Dark Chocolates Produced from ‘bulk’ Cocoa Beans? (Part I: Aroma Profiling of Chocolates).” FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL 119: 84–98.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Hinneh, Michael, Enoch Enorkplim Abotsi, Davy Van de Walle, Daylan Amelia Tzompa Sosa, Ann De Winne, Julien Simonis, Kathy Messens, Jim Van Durme, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Luc De Cooman, and Koen Dewettinck. 2019. “Pod Storage with Roasting : A Tool to Diversifying the Flavor Profiles of Dark Chocolates Produced from ‘bulk’ Cocoa Beans? (Part I: Aroma Profiling of Chocolates).” FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL 119: 84–98.
Vancouver
1.
Hinneh M, Abotsi EE, Van de Walle D, Tzompa Sosa DA, De Winne A, Simonis J, et al. Pod storage with roasting : a tool to diversifying the flavor profiles of dark chocolates produced from “bulk” cocoa beans? (part I: aroma profiling of chocolates). FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL. 2019;119:84–98.
IEEE
[1]
M. Hinneh et al., “Pod storage with roasting : a tool to diversifying the flavor profiles of dark chocolates produced from ‘bulk’ cocoa beans? (part I: aroma profiling of chocolates),” FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL, vol. 119, pp. 84–98, 2019.
@article{8605100,
  abstract     = {The impact of pod storage (PS) and roasting temperature (RT) on the aroma profiles of dark chocolates were evaluated. Cocoa liquor samples comprised of ten different combinations of PS and RT, whilst keeping the roasting time fixed at 35 min. Additionally, commercial cocoa liquors from renowned origins (Ecuador, Madagascar, Venezuela, Vietnam, Ivory Coast and Ghana) were acquired for comparison. From these, 70% dark chocolates were produced under the same conditions after which they were subjected to headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC–MS) analysis. Although both PS and RT were found to influence the aroma volatile concentrations, the impact of RT over PS seemed to be greater. An agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) of all chocolates on the basis of their aroma profiles revealed a similar impact as earlier observed, where major clustering of the chocolates was in accordance with the intensity of the roasting process applied. However, within each group, the dissimilarities owing to PS among the chocolates was clearly depicted. Comparatively, chocolates with low (100–120 °C), instead of moderate to high (135–160 °C) RT's, rather showed a low dissimilarity with those from the commercial cocoa liquors of the different origins. Although from the same beans, the diversity of aroma profiles of these chocolates as well as the similitude of some treatments to some chocolates from commercial grade cocoa liquors, unequivocally underscores the possibility for steering diverse distinct flavors from ‘bulk’ cocoa through PS and roasting, with beneficial implications, both from an application and an economic point of view.},
  author       = {Hinneh, Michael and Abotsi, Enoch Enorkplim and Van de Walle, Davy and Tzompa Sosa, Daylan Amelia and De Winne, Ann and Simonis, Julien and Messens, Kathy and Van Durme, Jim and Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene and De Cooman, Luc and Dewettinck, Koen},
  issn         = {0963-9969},
  journal      = {FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL},
  keywords     = {Aroma profile,Chocolate,Cocoa,HS-SPME-GC-MS,Pod storage,Roasting,THEOBROMA-CACAO,FERMENTATION,ACIDIFICATION,TEMPERATURE,VOLATILES,QUALITY,TIME},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {84--98},
  title        = {Pod storage with roasting : a tool to diversifying the flavor profiles of dark chocolates produced from ‘bulk’ cocoa beans? (part I: aroma profiling of chocolates)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.01.057},
  volume       = {119},
  year         = {2019},
}

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