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Rheological behaviour and microstructural properties of dark chocolate produced by combination of a ball mill and a liquefier device as small scale chocolate production system

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Abstract
An alternative chocolate processing method, which can be applied by small-scale chocolate industries in cocoa producing countries, is highly needed. This work investigated the impact of processing variables and lecithin concentration on the rheological behaviour and microstructural characteristics of dark chocolate produced by means of a ball mill coupled with a liquefier device. Three experimental variables, namely ball size, milling time and lecithin concentration were studied. To investigate the degree of cocoa butter released from the cocoa particles during the chocolate production, two different cocoa sources, which had different level of cocoa butter, namely cocoa mass and cocoa powder, were used as ingredient. As references, chocolates were also conventionally produced using a combination of a planetary mixer, roll-refiner and conche. The results showed that regardless of the lecithin concentration, ball size, milling time and their interaction were the most decisive experimental variables in the milling process. Furthermore, lecithin concentration, ball size and milling time as well as their interactions highly influenced the rheological behaviour of the chocolates. Moisture and free fat content of the chocolates were comparable regardless of the processing method and the type of cocoa used. Regardless of the cocoa source, Casson yield values of the chocolates produced by alternative processing were higher than those of the chocolates produced by conventional processing, while Casson viscosities were relatively similar.
Keywords
Rheological behaviour, Mitrostructural characteristics, Ball mill, Dark chocolate, Small-scale chocolate processing, PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION, FLOW PROPERTIES, TEXTURAL PROPERTIES, IMPACT, SUGAR

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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Saputro, Arifin Dwi, Davy Van de Walle, Bobby Antan Caiquo, Michael Hinneh, Martina Kluczykoff, and Koen Dewettinck. 2019. “Rheological Behaviour and Microstructural Properties of Dark Chocolate Produced by Combination of a Ball Mill and a Liquefier Device as Small Scale Chocolate Production System.” Lwt-food Science and Technology 100: 10–19.
APA
Saputro, A. D., Van de Walle, D., Caiquo, B. A., Hinneh, M., Kluczykoff, M., & Dewettinck, K. (2019). Rheological behaviour and microstructural properties of dark chocolate produced by combination of a ball mill and a liquefier device as small scale chocolate production system. LWT-FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 100, 10–19.
Vancouver
1.
Saputro AD, Van de Walle D, Caiquo BA, Hinneh M, Kluczykoff M, Dewettinck K. Rheological behaviour and microstructural properties of dark chocolate produced by combination of a ball mill and a liquefier device as small scale chocolate production system. LWT-FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 2019;100:10–9.
MLA
Saputro, Arifin Dwi et al. “Rheological Behaviour and Microstructural Properties of Dark Chocolate Produced by Combination of a Ball Mill and a Liquefier Device as Small Scale Chocolate Production System.” LWT-FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 100 (2019): 10–19. Print.
@article{8605091,
  abstract     = {An alternative chocolate processing method, which can be applied by small-scale chocolate industries in cocoa producing countries, is highly needed. This work investigated the impact of processing variables and lecithin concentration on the rheological behaviour and microstructural characteristics of dark chocolate produced by means of a ball mill coupled with a liquefier device. Three experimental variables, namely ball size, milling time and lecithin concentration were studied. To investigate the degree of cocoa butter released from the cocoa particles during the chocolate production, two different cocoa sources, which had different level of cocoa butter, namely cocoa mass and cocoa powder, were used as ingredient. As references, chocolates were also conventionally produced using a combination of a planetary mixer, roll-refiner and conche. The results showed that regardless of the lecithin concentration, ball size, milling time and their interaction were the most decisive experimental variables in the milling process. Furthermore, lecithin concentration, ball size and milling time as well as their interactions highly influenced the rheological behaviour of the chocolates. Moisture and free fat content of the chocolates were comparable regardless of the processing method and the type of cocoa used. Regardless of the cocoa source, Casson yield values of the chocolates produced by alternative processing were higher than those of the chocolates produced by conventional processing, while Casson viscosities were relatively similar.},
  author       = {Saputro, Arifin Dwi and Van de Walle, Davy and Caiquo, Bobby Antan and Hinneh, Michael and Kluczykoff, Martina and Dewettinck, Koen},
  issn         = {0023-6438},
  journal      = {LWT-FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {10--19},
  title        = {Rheological behaviour and microstructural properties of dark chocolate produced by combination of a ball mill and a liquefier device as small scale chocolate production system},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2018.10.039},
  volume       = {100},
  year         = {2019},
}

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