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Aroma profile and appearance of dark chocolate formulated with palm sugar-sucrose blends

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Abstract
Palm sap sugar is a natural alternative sweetener that can be made from the sap/nectar of several species of palm tree flowers. In this work, a thorough investigation about the impact of chemical composition and physical properties of palm sugar on the formation of aroma and appearance of dark chocolate was carried out. Five sucrose–palm sugar blends with different palm sugar (PS) proportion, namely PS0, PS25, PS50, PS75, and PS100, were used as sweetener. The results showed that a higher concentration of some alkyl pyrazines, alkyl furans, alkyl alcohols, 2-acetylpyrrole, and acetic acid observed in the palm sugar-sweetened dark chocolate could be attributed to the aroma profile of palm sugar. In addition, there were some aroma volatiles which were only observed in palm sugar-sweetened dark chocolate, such as 2-furoic acid, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, 2,3-dihydro-5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one, and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (DDMP). The higher the proportion of palm sugar, the higher the concentration of these volatiles. Aside from this, the presence of more amorphous sugar was probably responsible for a higher concentration of aroma volatiles in chocolates containing palm sugar. Regarding the chocolate appearance, the effect of particle size in determining the colour was less pronounced than the effect of particle density and possible sugar network formation in the chocolate. The latter factor, might affect the surface roughness, resulting in different colour parameters. It seemed that the Maillard reaction during chocolate processing, which may influence the aroma profile and darkness of chocolate, occurred in much lesser extent that in the palm sugar production.
Keywords
Palm sugar-sucrose blends, Alternative sweetener, Dark chocolate, Aroma volatiles, Chocolate appearance, CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS-SPECTROMETRY, PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION, THEOBROMA-CACAO L., VOLATILE COMPOUNDS, TEXTURAL PROPERTIES, COCOA FERMENTATION, FLAVOR RELEASE, ARENGA-PINNATA, QUALITY, OLFACTOMETRY

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Chicago
Saputro, Arifin Dwi, Davy Van de Walle, Michael Hinneh, Jim Van Durme, and Koen Dewettinck. 2018. “Aroma Profile and Appearance of Dark Chocolate Formulated with Palm Sugar-sucrose Blends.” European Food Research and Technology 244 (7): 1281–1292.
APA
Saputro, A. D., Van de Walle, D., Hinneh, M., Van Durme, J., & Dewettinck, K. (2018). Aroma profile and appearance of dark chocolate formulated with palm sugar-sucrose blends. EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, 244(7), 1281–1292.
Vancouver
1.
Saputro AD, Van de Walle D, Hinneh M, Van Durme J, Dewettinck K. Aroma profile and appearance of dark chocolate formulated with palm sugar-sucrose blends. EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY. 2018;244(7):1281–92.
MLA
Saputro, Arifin Dwi et al. “Aroma Profile and Appearance of Dark Chocolate Formulated with Palm Sugar-sucrose Blends.” EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY 244.7 (2018): 1281–1292. Print.
@article{8605085,
  abstract     = {Palm sap sugar is a natural alternative sweetener that can be made from the sap/nectar of several species of palm tree flowers. In this work, a thorough investigation about the impact of chemical composition and physical properties of palm sugar on the formation of aroma and appearance of dark chocolate was carried out. Five sucrose–palm sugar blends with different palm sugar (PS) proportion, namely PS0, PS25, PS50, PS75, and PS100, were used as sweetener. The results showed that a higher concentration of some alkyl pyrazines, alkyl furans, alkyl alcohols, 2-acetylpyrrole, and acetic acid observed in the palm sugar-sweetened dark chocolate could be attributed to the aroma profile of palm sugar. In addition, there were some aroma volatiles which were only observed in palm sugar-sweetened dark chocolate, such as 2-furoic acid, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, 2,3-dihydro-5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one, and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (DDMP). The higher the proportion of palm sugar, the higher the concentration of these volatiles. Aside from this, the presence of more amorphous sugar was probably responsible for a higher concentration of aroma volatiles in chocolates containing palm sugar. Regarding the chocolate appearance, the effect of particle size in determining the colour was less pronounced than the effect of particle density and possible sugar network formation in the chocolate. The latter factor, might affect the surface roughness, resulting in different colour parameters. It seemed that the Maillard reaction during chocolate processing, which may influence the aroma profile and darkness of chocolate, occurred in much lesser extent that in the palm sugar production.},
  author       = {Saputro, Arifin Dwi and Van de Walle, Davy and Hinneh, Michael and Van Durme, Jim and Dewettinck, Koen},
  issn         = {1438-2377},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY},
  keywords     = {Palm sugar-sucrose blends,Alternative sweetener,Dark chocolate,Aroma volatiles,Chocolate appearance,CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS-SPECTROMETRY,PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION,THEOBROMA-CACAO L.,VOLATILE COMPOUNDS,TEXTURAL PROPERTIES,COCOA FERMENTATION,FLAVOR RELEASE,ARENGA-PINNATA,QUALITY,OLFACTOMETRY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {1281--1292},
  title        = {Aroma profile and appearance of dark chocolate formulated with palm sugar-sucrose blends},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-018-3043-2},
  volume       = {244},
  year         = {2018},
}

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