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Discrimination of cocoa liquors based on their odor fingerprint : a fast GC electronic nose suitability study

(2019) FOOD ANALYTICAL METHODS. 12(2). p.475-488
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Abstract
With the rising interest by consumers for high-quality cocoa products from a clear geographical origin, a rapid analytical method for quality control, authenticity and traceability assessment is of paramount importance. However, the complex mixture of volatiles present in cocoa liquor, the main ingredient for the chocolate production, complicates reaching this purpose. Hence, an analytical fingerprint approach using advanced electronic nose (E-nose) technology may offer a suitable technique. This study aimed to verify the suitability of an E-nose based on ultra-fast gas chromatography (GC) for the rapid discrimination between cocoa liquors from different origins. Fourteen cocoa liquors, produced of cocoa beans from ten different geographical origins, were analyzed. The obtained odor fingerprints were investigated using principal component analysis (PCA) which successfully discriminated most cocoa liquors, within one continent, according to their geographical origin. Besides, discriminant factor analysis (DFA) showed the possibility to differentiate between bulk and fine cocoa. Further tentative identification of predominant volatile compounds allowed the detection of compounds within a wide range of chemical classes occurring in cocoa products, such as acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, pyrazines, pyrones, and pyrroles. Most odorant compounds were previously described in literature as key volatiles in cocoa flavor, notable examples are acetic acid, 2-heptanol, 2/3-methylbutanal, acetophenone, isoamyl acetate, tetramethylpyrazine, maltol, and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. This study proves for the first time the usefulness of the GC E-nose for effective and rapid aroma profiling and discrimination between single origin cocoa liquors, which can be easily applied in the cocoa industry.
Keywords
Electronic nose, Cocoa liquor, Fine-flavor cocoa, Bulk cocoa, Cocoa quality, KEY AROMA COMPOUNDS, GEOGRAPHICAL ORIGIN, MASS SPECTROMETRY, FLAVOR FORMATION, DARK CHOCOLATE, BEANS, QUALITY, FERMENTATION, SENSOR, DIFFERENTIATION

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Citation

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MLA
Rottiers, Hayley et al. “Discrimination of Cocoa Liquors Based on Their Odor Fingerprint : a Fast GC Electronic Nose Suitability Study.” FOOD ANALYTICAL METHODS 12.2 (2019): 475–488. Print.
APA
Rottiers, H., Tzompa Sosa, D. A., Van de Vyver, L., Hinneh, M., Everaert, H., De Wever, J., Messens, K., et al. (2019). Discrimination of cocoa liquors based on their odor fingerprint : a fast GC electronic nose suitability study. FOOD ANALYTICAL METHODS, 12(2), 475–488.
Chicago author-date
Rottiers, Hayley, Daylan Amelia Tzompa Sosa, Liesbet Van de Vyver, Michael Hinneh, Helena Everaert, Jocelyn De Wever, Kathy Messens, and Koen Dewettinck. 2019. “Discrimination of Cocoa Liquors Based on Their Odor Fingerprint : a Fast GC Electronic Nose Suitability Study.” Food Analytical Methods 12 (2): 475–488.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Rottiers, Hayley, Daylan Amelia Tzompa Sosa, Liesbet Van de Vyver, Michael Hinneh, Helena Everaert, Jocelyn De Wever, Kathy Messens, and Koen Dewettinck. 2019. “Discrimination of Cocoa Liquors Based on Their Odor Fingerprint : a Fast GC Electronic Nose Suitability Study.” Food Analytical Methods 12 (2): 475–488.
Vancouver
1.
Rottiers H, Tzompa Sosa DA, Van de Vyver L, Hinneh M, Everaert H, De Wever J, et al. Discrimination of cocoa liquors based on their odor fingerprint : a fast GC electronic nose suitability study. FOOD ANALYTICAL METHODS. 2019;12(2):475–88.
IEEE
[1]
H. Rottiers et al., “Discrimination of cocoa liquors based on their odor fingerprint : a fast GC electronic nose suitability study,” FOOD ANALYTICAL METHODS, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 475–488, 2019.
@article{8604830,
  abstract     = {With the rising interest by consumers for high-quality cocoa products from a clear geographical origin, a rapid analytical method for quality control, authenticity and traceability assessment is of paramount importance. However, the complex mixture of volatiles present in cocoa liquor, the main ingredient for the chocolate production, complicates reaching this purpose. Hence, an analytical fingerprint approach using advanced electronic nose (E-nose) technology may offer a suitable technique. This study aimed to verify the suitability of an E-nose based on ultra-fast gas chromatography (GC) for the rapid discrimination between cocoa liquors from different origins. Fourteen cocoa liquors, produced of cocoa beans from ten different geographical origins, were analyzed. The obtained odor fingerprints were investigated using principal component analysis (PCA) which successfully discriminated most cocoa liquors, within one continent, according to their geographical origin. Besides, discriminant factor analysis (DFA) showed the possibility to differentiate between bulk and fine cocoa. Further tentative identification of predominant volatile compounds allowed the detection of compounds within a wide range of chemical classes occurring in cocoa products, such as acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, pyrazines, pyrones, and pyrroles. Most odorant compounds were previously described in literature as key volatiles in cocoa flavor, notable examples are acetic acid, 2-heptanol, 2/3-methylbutanal, acetophenone, isoamyl acetate, tetramethylpyrazine, maltol, and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. This study proves for the first time the usefulness of the GC E-nose for effective and rapid aroma profiling and discrimination between single origin cocoa liquors, which can be easily applied in the cocoa industry.},
  author       = {Rottiers, Hayley and Tzompa Sosa, Daylan Amelia and Van de Vyver, Liesbet and Hinneh, Michael and Everaert, Helena and De Wever, Jocelyn and Messens, Kathy and Dewettinck, Koen},
  issn         = {1936-9751},
  journal      = {FOOD ANALYTICAL METHODS},
  keywords     = {Electronic nose,Cocoa liquor,Fine-flavor cocoa,Bulk cocoa,Cocoa quality,KEY AROMA COMPOUNDS,GEOGRAPHICAL ORIGIN,MASS SPECTROMETRY,FLAVOR FORMATION,DARK CHOCOLATE,BEANS,QUALITY,FERMENTATION,SENSOR,DIFFERENTIATION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {475--488},
  title        = {Discrimination of cocoa liquors based on their odor fingerprint : a fast GC electronic nose suitability study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12161-018-1379-7},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2019},
}

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