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Real-time plasma state monitoring and supervisory control on TCV

(2019) NUCLEAR FUSION. 59(2).
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Abstract
In ITER and DEMO, various control objectives related to plasma control must be simultaneously achieved by the plasma control system (PCS), in both normal operation as well as off-normal conditions. The PCS must act on off-normal events and deviations from the target scenario, since certain sequences (chains) of events can precede disruptions. It is important that these decisions are made while maintaining a coherent prioritization between the real-time control tasks to ensure high-performance operation. In this paper, a generic architecture for task-based integrated plasma control is proposed. The architecture is characterized by the separation of state estimation, event detection, decisions and task execution among different algorithms, with standardized signal interfaces. Central to the architecture are a plasma state monitor and supervisory controller. In the plasma state monitor, discrete events in the continuous-valued plasma state arc modeled using finite state machines. This provides a high-level representation of the plasma state. The supervisory controller coordinates the execution of multiple plasma control tasks by assigning task priorities, based on the finite states of the plasma and the pulse schedule. These algorithms were implemented on the TCV digital control system and integrated with actuator resource management and existing state estimation algorithms and controllers. The plasma state monitor on TCV can track a multitude of plasma events, related to plasma current, rotating and locked neoclassical tearing modes, and position displacements. In TCV experiments on simultaneous control of plasma pressure, safety factor profile and NTMs using electron cyclotron heating (ECI I) and current drive (ECCD), the supervisory controller assigns priorities to the relevant control tasks. The tasks are then executed by feedback controllers and actuator allocation management. This work forms a significant step forward in the ongoing integration of control capabilities in experiments on TCV, in support of tokamak reactor operation.

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Chicago
Blanken, T. C., F. Felici, C. Galperti, M. Kong, O. Sauter, M. R. de Baar, N. M. T. Vu, et al. 2019. “Real-time Plasma State Monitoring and Supervisory Control on TCV.” Nuclear Fusion 59 (2).
APA
Blanken, T. C., Felici, F., Galperti, C., Kong, M., Sauter, O., de Baar, M. R., Vu, N. M. T., et al. (2019). Real-time plasma state monitoring and supervisory control on TCV. NUCLEAR FUSION, 59(2).
Vancouver
1.
Blanken TC, Felici F, Galperti C, Kong M, Sauter O, de Baar MR, et al. Real-time plasma state monitoring and supervisory control on TCV. NUCLEAR FUSION. 2019;59(2).
MLA
Blanken, T. C. et al. “Real-time Plasma State Monitoring and Supervisory Control on TCV.” NUCLEAR FUSION 59.2 (2019): n. pag. Print.
@article{8603645,
  abstract     = {In ITER and DEMO, various control objectives related to plasma control must be simultaneously achieved by the plasma control system (PCS), in both normal operation as well as off-normal conditions. The PCS must act on off-normal events and deviations from the target scenario, since certain sequences (chains) of events can precede disruptions. It is important that these decisions are made while maintaining a coherent prioritization between the real-time control tasks to ensure high-performance operation. In this paper, a generic architecture for task-based integrated plasma control is proposed. The architecture is characterized by the separation of state estimation, event detection, decisions and task execution among different algorithms, with standardized signal interfaces. Central to the architecture are a plasma state monitor and supervisory controller. In the plasma state monitor, discrete events in the continuous-valued plasma state arc modeled using finite state machines. This provides a high-level representation of the plasma state. The supervisory controller coordinates the execution of multiple plasma control tasks by assigning task priorities, based on the finite states of the plasma and the pulse schedule. These algorithms were implemented on the TCV digital control system and integrated with actuator resource management and existing state estimation algorithms and controllers. The plasma state monitor on TCV can track a multitude of plasma events, related to plasma current, rotating and locked neoclassical tearing modes, and position displacements. In TCV experiments on simultaneous control of plasma pressure, safety factor profile and NTMs using electron cyclotron heating (ECI I) and current drive (ECCD), the supervisory controller assigns priorities to the relevant control tasks. The tasks are then executed by feedback controllers and actuator allocation management. This work forms a significant step forward in the ongoing integration of control capabilities in experiments on TCV, in support of tokamak reactor operation.},
  articleno    = {026017},
  author       = {Blanken, T. C. and Felici, F. and Galperti, C. and Kong, M. and Sauter, O. and de Baar, M. R. and Vu, N. M. T. and Meyer, H. and Eich, T. and Beurskens, M. and Coda, S. and Hakola, A. and Martin, P. and Adamek, J. and Agostini, M. and Aguiam, D. and Ahn, J. and Aho-Mantila, L. and Akers, R. and Albanese, R. and Aledda, R. and Alessi, E. and Allan, S. and Alves, D. and Ambrosino, R. and Amicucci, L. and Anand, H. and Anastassiou, G. and Andrebe, Y. and Angioni, C. and Apruzzese, G. and Ariola, M. and Arnichand, H. and Arter, W. and Baciero, A. and Barnes, M. and Barrera, L. and Behn, R. and Bencze, A. and Bernardo, J. and Bernert, M. and Bettini, P. and Bilkova, P. and Bin, W. and Birkenmeier, G. and Bizarro, J. P. 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J. and Villone, F. and Viola, B. and Vlahos, L. and Voitsekhovitch, I and Vondracek, P. and Wagner, D. and Walkden, N. and Wang, N. and Wauters, T. and Weiland, M. and Weinzettl, V and Westerhof, E. and Wiesenberger, M. and Willensdorfer, M. and Wischmeier, M. and Wodniak, I and Wolfrum, E. and Yadykin, D. and Zagorski, R. and Zammuto, I and Zanca, P. and Zaplotnik, R. and Zestanakis, P. and Zhang, W. and Zoletnik, S. and Zuin, M. and Alberti, S. and Boedo, J. A. and Braunmueller, F. H. and Carpanese, F. and Chellai, O. and Citrin, J. and Fasoli, A. and Furno, I and Garrido, I and Graves, J. P. and Hawke, J. and Hogge, J-Ph and Schrittwieser, C. Ionita and Jacquier, R. and Kamleitner, J. and Keeling, D. L. and Kirneva, N. and Kraemer-Flecken, A. and Lazzaro, E. and Llobet, X. and Maljaars, E. and Maurizio, R. and Cabrera, P. A. Molina and Ricci, P. and Riva, F. and Robinson, T. and Schlatter, Ch and Sciortino, F. and Silva, M. and Sinha, J. and Stoltzfus-Dueck, T. and Tran, M. Q. and Weisen, H. and Dori, V},
  issn         = {0029-5515},
  journal      = {NUCLEAR FUSION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  title        = {Real-time plasma state monitoring and supervisory control on TCV},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aaf451},
  volume       = {59},
  year         = {2019},
}

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