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Field measurements of sand boil hydraulics

(2020) GEOTECHNIQUE. 70(2). p.153-160
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Abstract
A sand boil is a cone of granular material deposited on the ground surface around concentrated points of vertical seepage. Sand boils often form downstream of embankments during flood events, creating unfiltered seepage exits that may lead to initiation of backward erosion piping (BEP) in the foundation materials. Further progression of the backward erosion process may undermine the embankment, ultimately leading to collapse and breach. As the progression of BEP is dependent on the horizontal hydraulic gradient in the foundation, it is also impacted by the head loss occurring through the sand boil. In this study, the head loss occurring in sand boils along the Mississippi River and Waal River were measured and compared to predictions from a simple theoretical model. The measured head loss compared favourably with the predictions, indicating that the head loss is not constant but rather a function of grain size, sand boil throat diameter and flow rate.
Keywords
embankments, erosion, seepage

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Robbins, Bryant A., et al. “Field Measurements of Sand Boil Hydraulics.” GEOTECHNIQUE, vol. 70, no. 2, 2020, pp. 153–60.
APA
Robbins, B. A., Stephens, I. J., van Beek, V. M., Koelewijn, A. R., & Bezuijen, A. (2020). Field measurements of sand boil hydraulics. GEOTECHNIQUE, 70(2), 153–160.
Chicago author-date
Robbins, Bryant A., Isaac J. Stephens, Vera M. van Beek, Andre R. Koelewijn, and Adam Bezuijen. 2020. “Field Measurements of Sand Boil Hydraulics.” GEOTECHNIQUE 70 (2): 153–60.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Robbins, Bryant A., Isaac J. Stephens, Vera M. van Beek, Andre R. Koelewijn, and Adam Bezuijen. 2020. “Field Measurements of Sand Boil Hydraulics.” GEOTECHNIQUE 70 (2): 153–160.
Vancouver
1.
Robbins BA, Stephens IJ, van Beek VM, Koelewijn AR, Bezuijen A. Field measurements of sand boil hydraulics. GEOTECHNIQUE. 2020;70(2):153–60.
IEEE
[1]
B. A. Robbins, I. J. Stephens, V. M. van Beek, A. R. Koelewijn, and A. Bezuijen, “Field measurements of sand boil hydraulics,” GEOTECHNIQUE, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 153–160, 2020.
@article{8602930,
  abstract     = {A sand boil is a cone of granular material deposited on the ground surface around concentrated points of vertical seepage. Sand boils often form downstream of embankments during flood events, creating unfiltered seepage exits that may lead to initiation of backward erosion piping (BEP) in the foundation materials. Further progression of the backward erosion process may undermine the embankment, ultimately leading to collapse and breach. As the progression of BEP is dependent on the horizontal hydraulic gradient in the foundation, it is also impacted by the head loss occurring through the sand boil. In this study, the head loss occurring in sand boils along the Mississippi River and Waal River were measured and compared to predictions from a simple theoretical model. The measured head loss compared favourably with the predictions, indicating that the head loss is not constant but rather a function of grain size, sand boil throat diameter and flow rate.},
  author       = {Robbins, Bryant A. and Stephens, Isaac J.  and van Beek, Vera M. and Koelewijn, Andre R. and Bezuijen, Adam},
  issn         = {0016-8505},
  journal      = {GEOTECHNIQUE},
  keywords     = {embankments,erosion,seepage},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {153--160},
  title        = {Field measurements of sand boil hydraulics},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/jgeot.18.P.151},
  volume       = {70},
  year         = {2020},
}

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