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The hygiene hypothesis : immunological mechanisms of airway tolerance

Eline Haspeslagh (UGent) , Ines Heyndrickx (UGent) , Hamida Hammad (UGent) and Bart Lambrecht (UGent)
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Abstract
The hygiene hypothesis was initially proposed as an explanation for the alarming rise in allergy prevalence in the last century. The immunological idea behind this hypothesis was a lack of infections associated with a Western lifestyle and a consequential reduction in type 1 immune responses. It is now understood that the development of tolerance to allergens depends on microbial colonization and immunostimulatory environmental signals during early-life or passed on by the mother. These environmental cues are sensed and integrated by barrier epithelial cells of the lungs and possibly skin, which in turn instruct dendritic cells to regulate or impede adaptive T cell responses. Recent reports also implicate immunoregulatory macrophages as powerful suppressors of allergy by the microbiome. We propose that loss of adequate microbial stimulation due to a Western lifestyle may result in hypersensitive barrier tissues and the observed rise in type 2 allergic disease.
Keywords
REGULATORY T-CELLS, DUST MITE ALLERGEN, DENDRITIC CELLS, ATOPIC-DERMATITIS, CHILDHOOD ASTHMA, PROMOTES TOLERANCE, EPITHELIAL-CELLS, HUMAN MICROBIOTA, TYPE-2 IMMUNITY, GUT MICROBIOTA

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Chicago
Haspeslagh, Eline, Ines Heyndrickx, Hamida Hammad, and Bart Lambrecht. 2018. “The Hygiene Hypothesis : Immunological Mechanisms of Airway Tolerance.” Ed. Onur Boyman, Alexander Eggel, and Mario Noti. Current Opinion in Immunology 54: 102–108.
APA
Haspeslagh, E., Heyndrickx, I., Hammad, H., & Lambrecht, B. (2018). The hygiene hypothesis : immunological mechanisms of airway tolerance. (O. Boyman, A. Eggel, & M. Noti, Eds.)CURRENT OPINION IN IMMUNOLOGY, 54, 102–108.
Vancouver
1.
Haspeslagh E, Heyndrickx I, Hammad H, Lambrecht B. The hygiene hypothesis : immunological mechanisms of airway tolerance. Boyman O, Eggel A, Noti M, editors. CURRENT OPINION IN IMMUNOLOGY. 2018;54:102–8.
MLA
Haspeslagh, Eline et al. “The Hygiene Hypothesis : Immunological Mechanisms of Airway Tolerance.” Ed. Onur Boyman, Alexander Eggel, & Mario Noti. CURRENT OPINION IN IMMUNOLOGY 54 (2018): 102–108. Print.
@article{8600854,
  abstract     = {The hygiene hypothesis was initially proposed as an explanation for the alarming rise in allergy prevalence in the last century. The immunological idea behind this hypothesis was a lack of infections associated with a Western lifestyle and a consequential reduction in type 1 immune responses. It is now understood that the development of tolerance to allergens depends on microbial colonization and immunostimulatory environmental signals during early-life or passed on by the mother. These environmental cues are sensed and integrated by barrier epithelial cells of the lungs and possibly skin, which in turn instruct dendritic cells to regulate or impede adaptive T cell responses. Recent reports also implicate immunoregulatory macrophages as powerful suppressors of allergy by the microbiome. We propose that loss of adequate microbial stimulation due to a Western lifestyle may result in hypersensitive barrier tissues and the observed rise in type 2 allergic disease.},
  author       = {Haspeslagh, Eline and Heyndrickx, Ines and Hammad, Hamida and Lambrecht, Bart},
  editor       = {Boyman, Onur and Eggel, Alexander and Noti, Mario},
  issn         = {0952-7915},
  journal      = {CURRENT OPINION IN IMMUNOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {102--108},
  title        = {The hygiene hypothesis : immunological mechanisms of airway tolerance},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.06.007},
  volume       = {54},
  year         = {2018},
}

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