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Comparing written and photo-based indoor wayfinding instructions through eye fixation measures and user ratings as mental effort assessments

Laure De Cock (UGent) , Ralph Michels, Pepijn Viaene (UGent) , Alain De Wulf (UGent) , Kristien Ooms (UGent) , Nina Vanhaeren (UGent) , Nico Van de Weghe (UGent) and Philippe De Maeyer (UGent)
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Abstract
The use of mobile pedestrian wayfinding applications is gaining importance indoors. However, compared to outdoors, much less research has been conducted with respect to the most adequate ways to convey indoor wayfinding information to a user. An explorative study was conducted to compare two pedestrian indoor wayfinding applications, one text-based (Sole-Way) and one image-based (Eyedog), in terms of mental effort. To do this, eye tracking data and mental effort ratings were collected from 29 participants during two routes in an indoor environment. The results show that both textual instructions and photographs can enable a navigator to find his/her way while experiencing no or very little cognitive effort or difficulties. However, these instructions must be in line with a user's expectations of the route, which are based on his/her interpretation of the indoor environment at decision points. In this case, textual instructions offer the advantage that specific information can be explicitly and concisely shared with the user. Furthermore, the study drew attention to potential usability issues of the wayfinding aids (e.g. the incentive to swipe) and, as such, demonstrated the value of eye tracking and mental effort assessments in usability research.
Keywords
Indoor navigation, wayfinding aids, route communication, eye tracking, attention, eye movement, head-mounted eye tracker, mental effort, usability, COGNITIVE-LOAD, NAVIGATION, STRATEGIES, INTERFACE, DESIGN

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MLA
De Cock, Laure, et al. “Comparing Written and Photo-Based Indoor Wayfinding Instructions through Eye Fixation Measures and User Ratings as Mental Effort Assessments.” JOURNAL OF EYE MOVEMENT RESEARCH, vol. 12, no. 1, 2019.
APA
De Cock, L., Michels, R., Viaene, P., De Wulf, A., Ooms, K., Vanhaeren, N., … De Maeyer, P. (2019). Comparing written and photo-based indoor wayfinding instructions through eye fixation measures and user ratings as mental effort assessments. JOURNAL OF EYE MOVEMENT RESEARCH, 12(1).
Chicago author-date
De Cock, Laure, Ralph Michels, Pepijn Viaene, Alain De Wulf, Kristien Ooms, Nina Vanhaeren, Nico Van de Weghe, and Philippe De Maeyer. 2019. “Comparing Written and Photo-Based Indoor Wayfinding Instructions through Eye Fixation Measures and User Ratings as Mental Effort Assessments.” JOURNAL OF EYE MOVEMENT RESEARCH 12 (1).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Cock, Laure, Ralph Michels, Pepijn Viaene, Alain De Wulf, Kristien Ooms, Nina Vanhaeren, Nico Van de Weghe, and Philippe De Maeyer. 2019. “Comparing Written and Photo-Based Indoor Wayfinding Instructions through Eye Fixation Measures and User Ratings as Mental Effort Assessments.” JOURNAL OF EYE MOVEMENT RESEARCH 12 (1).
Vancouver
1.
De Cock L, Michels R, Viaene P, De Wulf A, Ooms K, Vanhaeren N, et al. Comparing written and photo-based indoor wayfinding instructions through eye fixation measures and user ratings as mental effort assessments. JOURNAL OF EYE MOVEMENT RESEARCH. 2019;12(1).
IEEE
[1]
L. De Cock et al., “Comparing written and photo-based indoor wayfinding instructions through eye fixation measures and user ratings as mental effort assessments,” JOURNAL OF EYE MOVEMENT RESEARCH, vol. 12, no. 1, 2019.
@article{8600754,
  abstract     = {The use of mobile pedestrian wayfinding applications is gaining importance indoors. However, compared to outdoors, much less research has been conducted with respect to the most adequate ways to convey indoor wayfinding information to a user. An explorative study was conducted to compare two pedestrian indoor wayfinding applications, one text-based (Sole-Way) and one image-based (Eyedog), in terms of mental effort. To do this, eye tracking data and mental effort ratings were collected from 29 participants during two routes in an indoor environment. The results show that both textual instructions and photographs can enable a navigator to find his/her way while experiencing no or very little cognitive effort or difficulties. However, these instructions must be in line with a user's expectations of the route, which are based on his/her interpretation of the indoor environment at decision points. In this case, textual instructions offer the advantage that specific information can be explicitly and concisely shared with the user. Furthermore, the study drew attention to potential usability issues of the wayfinding aids (e.g. the incentive to swipe) and, as such, demonstrated the value of eye tracking and mental effort assessments in usability research.},
  articleno    = {1},
  author       = {De Cock, Laure and Michels, Ralph and Viaene, Pepijn and De Wulf, Alain and Ooms, Kristien and Vanhaeren, Nina and Van de Weghe, Nico and De Maeyer, Philippe},
  issn         = {1995-8692},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF EYE MOVEMENT RESEARCH},
  keywords     = {Indoor navigation,wayfinding aids,route communication,eye tracking,attention,eye movement,head-mounted eye tracker,mental effort,usability,COGNITIVE-LOAD,NAVIGATION,STRATEGIES,INTERFACE,DESIGN},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {14},
  title        = {Comparing written and photo-based indoor wayfinding instructions through eye fixation measures and user ratings as mental effort assessments},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.16910/jemr.12.1.1},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2019},
}

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