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RF-EMF exposure induced by mobile phones operating in LTE small cells in two different urban cities

(2019) ANNALS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS. 74(1-2). p.35-42
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Abstract
With the huge growth in data traffic, the densification of the macro cell (MC) layer with low-powered small cell (SC) base stations (resulting in a heterogeneous network) will improve network performances in terms of radio coverage and capacity. However, this may influence the human exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs). Through measurement campaigns in two different urban cities (in France and the Netherlands), the authors characterized the RF-EMF exposure induced by LTE (Long-Term Evolution) MC and SC networks, while considering radio emissions from both base stations (downlink or DL) and user equipment (uplink or UL). For an internet data usage and with respect to an MC connection, results showed that an SC connection may increase the DL exposure while decreasing the UL exposure (with a factor of 5 to 17), mainly due to the lower mobile phone emitted power and depending on whether the throughput is limited or not. Furthermore, the city with a dense network is characterized by low UL exposure and high DL exposure.
Keywords
Electromagnetic field, Heterogeneous network, Human exposure, Radio, frequency, Small cell

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Mazloum, Taghrid, Sam Aerts, Wout Joseph, and Joe Wiart. 2019. “RF-EMF Exposure Induced by Mobile Phones Operating in LTE Small Cells in Two Different Urban Cities.” Annals of Telecommunications 74 (1-2): 35–42.
APA
Mazloum, T., Aerts, S., Joseph, W., & Wiart, J. (2019). RF-EMF exposure induced by mobile phones operating in LTE small cells in two different urban cities. ANNALS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, 74(1-2), 35–42.
Vancouver
1.
Mazloum T, Aerts S, Joseph W, Wiart J. RF-EMF exposure induced by mobile phones operating in LTE small cells in two different urban cities. ANNALS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS. Cham: Springer International Publishing Ag; 2019;74(1-2):35–42.
MLA
Mazloum, Taghrid et al. “RF-EMF Exposure Induced by Mobile Phones Operating in LTE Small Cells in Two Different Urban Cities.” ANNALS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS 74.1-2 (2019): 35–42. Print.
@article{8600462,
  abstract     = {With the huge growth in data traffic, the densification of the macro cell (MC) layer with low-powered small cell (SC) base stations (resulting in a heterogeneous network) will improve network performances in terms of radio coverage and capacity. However, this may influence the human exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs). Through measurement campaigns in two different urban cities (in France and the Netherlands), the authors characterized the RF-EMF exposure induced by LTE (Long-Term Evolution) MC and SC networks, while considering radio emissions from both base stations (downlink or DL) and user equipment (uplink or UL). For an internet data usage and with respect to an MC connection, results showed that an SC connection may increase the DL exposure while decreasing the UL exposure (with a factor of 5 to 17), mainly due to the lower mobile phone emitted power and depending on whether the throughput is limited or not. Furthermore, the city with a dense network is characterized by low UL exposure and high DL exposure.},
  author       = {Mazloum, Taghrid and Aerts, Sam and Joseph, Wout and Wiart, Joe},
  issn         = {0003-4347},
  journal      = {ANNALS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1-2},
  pages        = {35--42},
  publisher    = {Springer International Publishing Ag},
  title        = {RF-EMF exposure induced by mobile phones operating in LTE small cells in two different urban cities},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12243-018-0680-1},
  volume       = {74},
  year         = {2019},
}

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