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Alternatives to prison for drug offenders in Belgium during the past decade

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Abstract
Objective: Imprisonment has a more pronounced criminogenic effect on drug offenders than on other types of offenders. Additionally, little research has been conducted on the practical application of drug-related alternatives to prison. Therefore, this study describes drug-related alternatives to prison in Belgium over a ten years' period since 2005. Methods: The applied drug-related alternatives to prison ('probation', 'conditional release', 'mediation in criminal cases', 'community service' and 'electronic monitoring') were subject to a secondary data analysis of the database of the Houses of Justice. Results: Men, the age group of 16-24 years old and Belgians are most sentenced to alternatives to prison. Nevertheless, 38% of women are guided towards 'probation' while 8% is 'mediated in criminal cases' compared to 30% and 5% of males respectively (p < .001). 26% of non-Belgians are involved in 'conditional release' and 'electronic monitoring' compared to 22% and 16% among Belgians (p < .001) respectively. With regards to age, 21% of the offenders older than 24 years are involved in 'electronic monitoring' compared to 6% among the offenders younger than 25 years (p < .001). Conclusions: The results highlight differences in punishment judgments by age, gender and nationality that continues to be indicative for perceived threat, danger and culpability of the offenders.
Keywords
Drug offences, Alternatives to prison, Secondary data, CRIMINAL-JUSTICE, TREATMENT NEEDS, DIVERSION, COURTS, AGE, RECIDIVISM, SANCTIONS, GENDER, HEALTH, WOMEN

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MLA
Plettinckx, Els, et al. “Alternatives to Prison for Drug Offenders in Belgium during the Past Decade.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LAW AND PSYCHIATRY, vol. 61, 2018, pp. 13–21, doi:10.1016/j.ijlp.2018.09.003.
APA
Plettinckx, E., Antoine, J., Gremeaux, L., & Van Oyen, H. (2018). Alternatives to prison for drug offenders in Belgium during the past decade. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LAW AND PSYCHIATRY, 61, 13–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2018.09.003
Chicago author-date
Plettinckx, Els, Jérôme Antoine, Lies Gremeaux, and Herman Van Oyen. 2018. “Alternatives to Prison for Drug Offenders in Belgium during the Past Decade.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LAW AND PSYCHIATRY 61: 13–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2018.09.003.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Plettinckx, Els, Jérôme Antoine, Lies Gremeaux, and Herman Van Oyen. 2018. “Alternatives to Prison for Drug Offenders in Belgium during the Past Decade.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LAW AND PSYCHIATRY 61: 13–21. doi:10.1016/j.ijlp.2018.09.003.
Vancouver
1.
Plettinckx E, Antoine J, Gremeaux L, Van Oyen H. Alternatives to prison for drug offenders in Belgium during the past decade. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LAW AND PSYCHIATRY. 2018;61:13–21.
IEEE
[1]
E. Plettinckx, J. Antoine, L. Gremeaux, and H. Van Oyen, “Alternatives to prison for drug offenders in Belgium during the past decade,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LAW AND PSYCHIATRY, vol. 61, pp. 13–21, 2018.
@article{8600278,
  abstract     = {{Objective: Imprisonment has a more pronounced criminogenic effect on drug offenders than on other types of offenders. Additionally, little research has been conducted on the practical application of drug-related alternatives to prison. Therefore, this study describes drug-related alternatives to prison in Belgium over a ten years' period since 2005. 
Methods: The applied drug-related alternatives to prison ('probation', 'conditional release', 'mediation in criminal cases', 'community service' and 'electronic monitoring') were subject to a secondary data analysis of the database of the Houses of Justice. 
Results: Men, the age group of 16-24 years old and Belgians are most sentenced to alternatives to prison. Nevertheless, 38% of women are guided towards 'probation' while 8% is 'mediated in criminal cases' compared to 30% and 5% of males respectively (p < .001). 26% of non-Belgians are involved in 'conditional release' and 'electronic monitoring' compared to 22% and 16% among Belgians (p < .001) respectively. With regards to age, 21% of the offenders older than 24 years are involved in 'electronic monitoring' compared to 6% among the offenders younger than 25 years (p < .001). 
Conclusions: The results highlight differences in punishment judgments by age, gender and nationality that continues to be indicative for perceived threat, danger and culpability of the offenders.}},
  author       = {{Plettinckx, Els and Antoine, Jérôme and Gremeaux, Lies and Van Oyen, Herman}},
  issn         = {{0160-2527}},
  journal      = {{INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LAW AND PSYCHIATRY}},
  keywords     = {{Drug offences,Alternatives to prison,Secondary data,CRIMINAL-JUSTICE,TREATMENT NEEDS,DIVERSION,COURTS,AGE,RECIDIVISM,SANCTIONS,GENDER,HEALTH,WOMEN}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{13--21}},
  title        = {{Alternatives to prison for drug offenders in Belgium during the past decade}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2018.09.003}},
  volume       = {{61}},
  year         = {{2018}},
}

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