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How does intrauterine crowding affect locomotor performance in newborn pigs? : a study of force generating capacity and muscle composition of the hind limb

(2018) PLOS ONE. 13(12).
Author
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Abstract
Intrauterine crowding (IUC) considerably influences postnatal traits in a polytocous species such as the pig. Previously, our group described how IUC affects locomotion during the piglet's first days of life (until 96 h after birth). We noted a reduced motor performance in piglets with a low birth weight and low vitality (L piglets), compared to piglets with a normal birth weight and normal vitality (N piglets), indicating L piglets are unable to produce enough force. Our current study investigates whether this observed force deficit in L piglets is caused by a reduced force generating capacity in the muscles and/or a lower percentage of type II (fast-contracting) fibers. Volume and fiber length of the main extensor muscles of the hind limb were used to estimate the physiological cross-sectional area (PSCA) and hence calculate the maximal isometric force generating capacity (Fiso-max) of the hind limb. To check for developmental differences between the muscles of L and N piglets, Fiso-max was normalized to body weight (BW), thus yielding a dimensionless variable F'iso-max. To check for differences in muscle composition, m. vastus lateralis was stained immunohistochemically in order to determine the percentage of type II fibers through image analysis. Our results indicate that L piglets have a reduced absolute force generating capacity due to a lesser muscle mass, compared to N piglets. However, when normalized to BW L piglets actually show a larger force generating capacity, suggesting their muscles are more voluminous, given their body mass, than those of N piglets. However, no differences between L and N piglets were detected with regard to muscle composition of the m. vastus lateralis. Based on our data, we can say that neither normalized force generating capacity, nor muscle composition (of the m. vastus lateralis) can explain the observed force deficit in L piglets and as such the effect of IUC on locomotor performance.
Keywords
HEAVY-CHAIN ISOFORMS, BIRTH-WEIGHT, MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES, BODY-COMPOSITION, SHORTENING VELOCITY, ATPASE ACTIVITY, SINGLE FIBERS, PELVIC LIMB, LITTER SIZE, SKELETAL

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MLA
Vanden Hole, Charlotte, et al. “How Does Intrauterine Crowding Affect Locomotor Performance in Newborn Pigs? : A Study of Force Generating Capacity and Muscle Composition of the Hind Limb.” PLOS ONE, vol. 13, no. 12, 2018, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0209233.
APA
Vanden Hole, C., Cleuren, S., Van Ginneken, C., Prims, S., Ayuso, M., Van Cruchten, S., & Aerts, P. (2018). How does intrauterine crowding affect locomotor performance in newborn pigs? : a study of force generating capacity and muscle composition of the hind limb. PLOS ONE, 13(12). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209233
Chicago author-date
Vanden Hole, Charlotte, Silke Cleuren, Chris Van Ginneken, Sara Prims, Miriam Ayuso, Steven Van Cruchten, and Peter Aerts. 2018. “How Does Intrauterine Crowding Affect Locomotor Performance in Newborn Pigs? : A Study of Force Generating Capacity and Muscle Composition of the Hind Limb.” PLOS ONE 13 (12). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209233.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Vanden Hole, Charlotte, Silke Cleuren, Chris Van Ginneken, Sara Prims, Miriam Ayuso, Steven Van Cruchten, and Peter Aerts. 2018. “How Does Intrauterine Crowding Affect Locomotor Performance in Newborn Pigs? : A Study of Force Generating Capacity and Muscle Composition of the Hind Limb.” PLOS ONE 13 (12). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0209233.
Vancouver
1.
Vanden Hole C, Cleuren S, Van Ginneken C, Prims S, Ayuso M, Van Cruchten S, et al. How does intrauterine crowding affect locomotor performance in newborn pigs? : a study of force generating capacity and muscle composition of the hind limb. PLOS ONE. 2018;13(12).
IEEE
[1]
C. Vanden Hole et al., “How does intrauterine crowding affect locomotor performance in newborn pigs? : a study of force generating capacity and muscle composition of the hind limb,” PLOS ONE, vol. 13, no. 12, 2018.
@article{8599965,
  abstract     = {{Intrauterine crowding (IUC) considerably influences postnatal traits in a polytocous species such as the pig. Previously, our group described how IUC affects locomotion during the piglet's first days of life (until 96 h after birth). We noted a reduced motor performance in piglets with a low birth weight and low vitality (L piglets), compared to piglets with a normal birth weight and normal vitality (N piglets), indicating L piglets are unable to produce enough force. Our current study investigates whether this observed force deficit in L piglets is caused by a reduced force generating capacity in the muscles and/or a lower percentage of type II (fast-contracting) fibers. Volume and fiber length of the main extensor muscles of the hind limb were used to estimate the physiological cross-sectional area (PSCA) and hence calculate the maximal isometric force generating capacity (Fiso-max) of the hind limb. To check for developmental differences between the muscles of L and N piglets, Fiso-max was normalized to body weight (BW), thus yielding a dimensionless variable F'iso-max. To check for differences in muscle composition, m. vastus lateralis was stained immunohistochemically in order to determine the percentage of type II fibers through image analysis. Our results indicate that L piglets have a reduced absolute force generating capacity due to a lesser muscle mass, compared to N piglets. However, when normalized to BW L piglets actually show a larger force generating capacity, suggesting their muscles are more voluminous, given their body mass, than those of N piglets. However, no differences between L and N piglets were detected with regard to muscle composition of the m. vastus lateralis. Based on our data, we can say that neither normalized force generating capacity, nor muscle composition (of the m. vastus lateralis) can explain the observed force deficit in L piglets and as such the effect of IUC on locomotor performance.}},
  articleno    = {{e0209233}},
  author       = {{Vanden Hole, Charlotte and Cleuren, Silke and Van Ginneken, Chris and Prims, Sara and Ayuso, Miriam and Van Cruchten, Steven and Aerts, Peter}},
  issn         = {{1932-6203}},
  journal      = {{PLOS ONE}},
  keywords     = {{HEAVY-CHAIN ISOFORMS,BIRTH-WEIGHT,MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES,BODY-COMPOSITION,SHORTENING VELOCITY,ATPASE ACTIVITY,SINGLE FIBERS,PELVIC LIMB,LITTER SIZE,SKELETAL}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{12}},
  pages        = {{18}},
  title        = {{How does intrauterine crowding affect locomotor performance in newborn pigs? : a study of force generating capacity and muscle composition of the hind limb}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209233}},
  volume       = {{13}},
  year         = {{2018}},
}

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