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Stressful conditions reveal decrease in size, modification of shape but relatively stable asymmetry in bumblebee wings

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Abstract
Human activities can generate a wide variety of direct and indirect effects on animals, which can manifest as environmental and genetic stressors. Several phenotypic markers have been proposed as indicators of these stressful conditions but have displayed contrasting results, depending, among others, on the phenotypic trait measured. Knowing the worldwide decline of multiple bumblebee species, it is important to understand these stressors and link them with the drivers of decline. We assessed the impact of several stressors (i.e. natural toxin-, parasite-, thermic- and inbreeding-stress) on both wing shape and size and their variability as well as their directional and fluctuating asymmetries. The total data set includes 650 individuals of Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Overall wing size and shape were affected by all the tested stressors. Except for the sinigrin (e.g. glucosinolate) stress, each stress implies a decrease of wing size. Size variance was affected by several stressors, contrary to shape variance that was affected by none of them. Although wing size directional and fluctuating asymmetries were significantly affected by sinigrin, parasites and high temperatures, neither directional nor fluctuating shape asymmetry was significantly affected by any tested stressor. Parasites and high temperatures led to the strongest phenotype modifications. Overall size and shape were the most sensitive morphological traits, which contrasts with the common view that fluctuating asymmetry is the major phenotypic marker of stress.
Keywords
FLUCTUATING ASYMMETRY, DEVELOPMENTAL STABILITY, BODY-SIZE, DIRECTIONAL ASYMMETRY, BOMBUS-TERRESTRIS, ENVIRONMENTAL-STRESS, DROSOPHILA-BUZZATII, APIS-MELLIFERA, BERGMANNS RULE, BEE

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Chicago
Gerard, Maxence, Denis Michez, Vincent Debat, Lovina Fullgrabe, Ivan Meeus, Niels Piot, Ombeline Sculfort, Martin Vastrade, Guy Smagghe, and Maryse Vanderplanck. 2018. “Stressful Conditions Reveal Decrease in Size, Modification of Shape but Relatively Stable Asymmetry in Bumblebee Wings.” Scientific Reports 8.
APA
Gerard, M., Michez, D., Debat, V., Fullgrabe, L., Meeus, I., Piot, N., Sculfort, O., et al. (2018). Stressful conditions reveal decrease in size, modification of shape but relatively stable asymmetry in bumblebee wings. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 8.
Vancouver
1.
Gerard M, Michez D, Debat V, Fullgrabe L, Meeus I, Piot N, et al. Stressful conditions reveal decrease in size, modification of shape but relatively stable asymmetry in bumblebee wings. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. 2018;8.
MLA
Gerard, Maxence et al. “Stressful Conditions Reveal Decrease in Size, Modification of Shape but Relatively Stable Asymmetry in Bumblebee Wings.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 8 (2018): n. pag. Print.
@article{8598992,
  abstract     = {Human activities can generate a wide variety of direct and indirect effects on animals, which can manifest as environmental and genetic stressors. Several phenotypic markers have been proposed as indicators of these stressful conditions but have displayed contrasting results, depending, among others, on the phenotypic trait measured. Knowing the worldwide decline of multiple bumblebee species, it is important to understand these stressors and link them with the drivers of decline. We assessed the impact of several stressors (i.e. natural toxin-, parasite-, thermic- and inbreeding-stress) on both wing shape and size and their variability as well as their directional and fluctuating asymmetries. The total data set includes 650 individuals of Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Overall wing size and shape were affected by all the tested stressors. Except for the sinigrin (e.g. glucosinolate) stress, each stress implies a decrease of wing size. Size variance was affected by several stressors, contrary to shape variance that was affected by none of them. Although wing size directional and fluctuating asymmetries were significantly affected by sinigrin, parasites and high temperatures, neither directional nor fluctuating shape asymmetry was significantly affected by any tested stressor. Parasites and high temperatures led to the strongest phenotype modifications. Overall size and shape were the most sensitive morphological traits, which contrasts with the common view that fluctuating asymmetry is the major phenotypic marker of stress.},
  articleno    = {15169},
  author       = {Gerard, Maxence and Michez, Denis and Debat, Vincent and Fullgrabe, Lovina and Meeus, Ivan and Piot, Niels and Sculfort, Ombeline and Vastrade, Martin and Smagghe, Guy and Vanderplanck, Maryse},
  issn         = {2045-2322},
  journal      = {SCIENTIFIC REPORTS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {10},
  title        = {Stressful conditions reveal decrease in size, modification of shape but relatively stable asymmetry in bumblebee wings},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-33429-4},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2018},
}

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